Building Energy Center
Building Energy Center

Welcome to the Building Energy Center

The University of Dayton's Building Energy Center (UD-BEC) was founded in 2006 with the following goals:

  • Improving building performance and energy efficiency
  • Educating energy efficiency engineers
  • Advancing the science of building energy performance

The Building Energy Center provides the following:

  • Low-cost residential energy audits
  • Low-cost commercial building energy audits
  • Net-zero energy building design assistance
  • Renewable energy system design assistance
  • Energy and CO2 emission tracking and benchmarking
  • Phase change material and thermal mass analysis
  • Free energy analysis software

The Center makes a special effort to work with low-income and other groups who can especially benefit from state-of-the-art energy efficiency information. A principle focus of the Building Energy Center is to extend building energy science though the careful analysis of energy data. The energy assessment capabilities of the Center build on the expertise of the award-winning University of Dayton Industrial Assessment Center, which has performed over 750 industrial energy assessments during the past 25 years.

Building Energy Center

Case Studies

UDBEC-20060215a: Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities for University of Dayton Housing: 26 Chambers Street

  • Analysis of the savings opportunities for a typical University of Dayton student house
  • Presents analysis of energy bills, an energy simulation model, and specific saving recommendations

UDBEC-20060215b: Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities or University of Dayton Housing: 226 Kiefaber Street

  • Analysis of savings opportunities for a typical University of Dayton student house
  • Presents analysis of energy bills, an energy simulation model, and specific saving recommendations

UDBEC-20060215c: Energy Analysis of a Straw Bale House

  • Analysis of a straw bale house in Yellow Springs, Ohio
  • Presents analysis of energy bills and energy simulation model conducted to understand the performance of a straw bale house in southern Ohio.

UDBEC-20060510: Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities for Dayton Humane Society

  • Audit of the Dayton Humane Society
  • Presents an analysis of energy bills, an energy simulation model, and specific saving recommendations

UDBEC-20070110: Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities For Department of Water, Sewer Maintenance Facility

  • Analysis of the Department of Sewer Maintenance for the City of Dayton, Ohio
  • Presents analysis of energy bills and an energy simulation model conducted in conjunction with the development of a carbon dioxide emissions footprint for the city with aims to follow the U.S. Mayors' Climate Protection Agreement.

UDBEC-2007XXXX: Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities For Downtown Dayton YMCA

  • On November 9, 2006, the UD-BEC visited the Downtown Dayton YMCA.
  • This case study contains the analysis of energy bills and energy savings recommendations.
  • This report is hopefully the first of multiple YMCA reports.

UDBEC-20070207: University of Dayton Kettering Labs Window Energy Use Analysis

  • On January 9, 2007, Dr. Joe Saliba, Dean of the School of Engineering, requested an analysis to determine the energy cost savings from replacing the current double-pane aluminum frame casement windows in Kettering Labs with Pella double-pane wood-frame double hung windows.
  • The proposed windows with and without a low-emissivity coating were lyzed.
  • This report summarizes the results of this analysis.
Building Energy Center

Reports

“Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities For City of Dayton YMCA," Gregory Raffio, George Mertz, Charles Schreier, Josh Fortman, Tom Wenning, Kazim Mirza, and Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton Building Energy Center, Dayton, Ohio, 11/7/2007.

“University of Dayton Kettering Labs Window Energy Use Analysis,” Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton Building Energy Center, Dayton, Ohio, 2/7/2007.

“Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities For City of Dayton Department of Water, Sewer Maintenance Facility,” University of Dayton Building Energy Center, Dayton, Ohio, 1/10/2007.

“Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities For 35 Monteray Road," Charles Schreier, Josh Fortman, Ovelio Isambert, Greg Raffio, and Jacob Janczak, University of Dayton Building Energy Center, Dayton, Ohio, 5/19/2006.

“Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities For Dayton Humane Society,” Gregory Raffio, Jacob Janczak, Charles Schreier, George Mertz, and Dr. Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton Building Energy Center, Dayton, Ohio, 5/10/2006.

“Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities For Habitat for Humanity 3 Bedroom Ranch House,” Charles Schreier, Jacob Janczak, Gregory Raffio, George Mertz, and Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton Building Energy Center, Dayton, Ohio, 4/20/2006.

“Energy Analysis of a Straw Bale House,” University of Dayton Building Energy Analysis Center, Charles Schreier, Jacob Janczak, Gregory Raffio, George Mertz, and Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton Building Energy Center, Dayton, Ohio, 4/17/2006.

“Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities For UD Housing: 226 Kiefaber Street,” Jacob Janczak, Gregory Raffio, Charles Schreier, George Mertz, and Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton Building Energy Center, Dayton, Ohio, 2/15/2006.

“Energy Analysis and Savings Opportunities For UD Housing: 26 Chambers Street,” Charles Schreier, Jacob Janczak, Gregory Raffio, George Mertz, and Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton Building Energy Center, Dayton, Ohio, 2/15/2006.

“Economic Analysis of the UD Eco-house: A New Era of UD Housing,” Mertz, G. A., Raffio, G. S., and Kissock, K., University of Dayton Building Energy Center, Dayton, Ohio. 2005.

Building Energy Center

Publications

Net-Zero Energy Buildings

Mertz,G., Raffio, G. and Kissock, K., 2007, “Cost Optimization of the University of Dayton Net-Zero Energy House,” ASME International Solar Energy Conference, June 27-30, Long Beach, Calif.

Raffio, G. S., Mertz, G. A., and Kissock, K., 2006, “Cost Benefit Analysis of Net Zero Energy Campus Residence,” Proceedings of the ISEC2006 International Solar Energy Conference. July 13-18, Denver, Colo.

Mertz, G., Raffio, G., Kissock K., and Hallinan, K., 2005, “Conceptual Design of Net Zero Energy Campus Residence,” Proceedings of the ISEC2005 International Solar Energy Conference. Aug 6-12, Orlando, Fla.

Energy Informatics

Raffio, G., Isambert, O., Mertz, G., Schreier, C. and Kissock, K., 2007, “Targeting Residential Energy Assistance Programs,” ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Long Beach, Calif., June 27-30.

Seryak, J. and Kissock, K., 2004, “Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a University Housing Energy Reduction Contests,” ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, Calif., August.

Kissock, J.K., Haberl J. and Claridge, D.E., 2003. “Inverse Modeling Toolkit (1050RP): Numerical Algorithms,” ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 109, Part 2, pp. 425-434.

Haberl. J., Sreshthaputra, A., Claridge, D.E. and Kissock, J.K., 2003. “Inverse Modeling Toolkit (1050RP): Application and Testing,” ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 109, Part 2, pp. 435-448.

Ruch, D.K., Kissock, J.K. and Reddy, T.A., 1999. "Prediction Uncertainty of Linear Building Energy Use Models with Autocorrelated Residuals," ASME Transactions Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 121, No.1, pp. 63-68.

Kissock, J.K., Joseph, H. and McBride, J., 1998. "The Effects of Varying Indoor Air Temperature and Heat Gain on the Measurement of Retrofit Savings," ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 104, Pt.2.

Kissock, J.K., Reddy, T.A. and Claridge, D.E., 1998. "Ambient Temperature Regression Analysis for Estimating Retrofit Savings in Commercial Buildings," Invited paper for ASME Transactions Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 120, No. 3, pp. 185-192.

Reddy, T.A., Kissock, J.K. and Ruch, D.K., 1998. "Uncertainty in Baseline Regression Modeling and in Determination of Retrofit Savings," ASME Transactions Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 120, No. 3, pp. 168-176.

Reddy, T.A., Katipamula, S., Kissock, J.K. and Claridge, D.E., 1995. "The Functional Basis of Steady-State Thermal Energy Use in Air-Side HVAC Equipment," ASME Transactions Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 117, pp. 31-39.

Reddy, T.A., Kissock, J.K., Katipamula, S. and Claridge, D.E., 1994. "An Energy Delivery Efficiency Index to Evaluate Simultaneous Heating and Cooling Effects in Large Commercial Buildings," ASME Transactions Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 116, No.2, pp. 79-87.

Kissock, J.K. and Fels, M., 1995. "An Assessment of PRISM's Reliability for Commercial Buildings," National Energy Program Evaluation Conference, Chicago, IL, August.

Fels, M., Kissock, J.K. and Marean, M., 1994. "Model Selection Guidelines for PRISM (Or: Now That HC PRISM Is Coming, How Will I Know When to Use It?)," ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, August.

Kissock, J.K., 1994. "Modeling Commercial Building Energy Use With Artificial Neural Networks," Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Vol. 3, pp. 1290-1295, Monterey, CA, August.

Ruch, D.K., Kissock, J.K. and Reddy, T.A., 1993. "Model Identification and Prediction Uncertainty of Linear Building Energy Use Models with Autocorrelated Residuals," ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Washington, DC, April.

Haberl, J.S., Kissock, J.K., Belur, R. and Sparks, R., 1993. "Improving The Paradigm For Displaying Complex Building Energy Consumption Data," ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Washington, DC, April.

Kissock, J.K., Reddy, T.A., Fletcher, D. and Claridge, D.E., 1993. "The Effect of Short Data Periods on the Annual Prediction Accuracy of Temperature Dependent Regression Models of Commercial Building Energy Use," ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Washington, DC, April.

Claridge, D.E., Haberl, J., Sparks, R., Lopez, R. and Kissock, J.K., 1992. "Monitored Commercial Building Energy Data: Reporting the Results," ASHRAE Transactions, Volume 98, Part 1, Pages 881-889.

Belur, R., Kissock, J.K. and Haberl, J.S., 1992. "Exploring an Enhanced Data Viewing Facility for Building Operators," ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, August.

Reddy, T.A, Kissock, J.K. and Claridge, D.E., 1992. "Uncertainty Analysis in Estimating Building Energy Retrofit Savings in the Texas LoanSTAR Program," ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, August.

Kissock, J.K, Claridge, D.E., Haberl, J.S. and Reddy, T.A., 1992. "Measuring Retrofit Savings For the Texas LoanSTAR Program: Preliminary Methodology and Results," ASME-JSES-SSME International Solar Energy Conference, Lahaina, HI, April.

Phase-Change Materials and Thermal Mass Kissock, J.K. and Limas, S., 2006. “Diurnal Load Reduction Through Phase-Change Building Components,” ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 112, Part 1, pp. 509-517.

Kissock, J.K., Hannig, J.M., Whitney, T.I. and Drake, M.L., 1998. "Testing and Simulation of Phase Change Wallboard for Thermal Storage in Buildings," Accepted for publication in ASME Transactions Journal of Solar Energy Engineering.

Gilbert, R. and Kissock, K., 2007, “The Effect Of Thermal Mass On Thermal Transmission Loads,” ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Long Beach, CA, June 27-30.

Mirza, K. and Kissock, K., 2007, “An Analytical Solution for Determining Dynamic Thermal Loads through Walls,” ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Long Beach, CA, June 27-30.

Kissock, J.K., 2000, “Thermal Load Reduction from Phase-Change Building Components in Temperature Controlled Buildings,” ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Madison, WI, June.

Kissock, J.K., Hannig, J.M., Whitney, T.I. and Drake, M.L., 1998. "Testing and Simulation of Phase Change Wallboard for Thermal Storage in Buildings," ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Albuquerque, N.M., June.

Daylighting

Syed, R., Kleinhenz, P., and Kissock, K., 2007, “Net Energy Costs of Skylights,” ACEEE Summer Study on Energy in Industry, White Plains, N.Y., July 24-27.

Kissock, K., 2004, “A Hybrid Method For Estimating Natural Lighting Potential In Buildings,” ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Portland, Ore., July 11–14.

Weather

Kissock, J.K., Joseph, H., 1999. "Synthesizing Hourly Meteorological Data to Improve the Accuracy of Calibrated Simulation Models," ASME International Renewable and Advanced Energy Systems for the 21st Century Conference, Lahaina, Hawaii, April 11-15.

Fuel Cells

Kissock, J.K., 1998, "Combined Heat and Power for Fuel Cell Cars," ASME International Solar Energy Conference, Albuquerque, N.M., June.

Building Energy Center

Audits and Analyses

Commercial Building Energy Audits

The University of Dayton Building Energy Center (UD-BEC) provides low-cost energy audits of commercial buildings.

The following are the three steps for each energy audit:

  • Client provides energy bills and base data on building and equipment at least two weeks prior to site visit. UD-BEC team analyzes data prior to site visit.
  • UD-BEC team visit the site for one or two days depending on building size.
  • UD-BEC team delivers confidential report within four-weeks of site visit.

Your UD-BEC commercial building energy audit reports will include the following:

  • Building description
  • Energy using equipment description
  • Statistical analysis of electricity and natural gas use
  • Benchmarking comparison of building’s energy use to similar buildings in region
  • CO2 footprint analysis and information on purchasing wind energy
  • Hour-by-hour energy simulation model calibrated to baseline energy use
  • General advice on quantifying energy efficiency opportunities
  • ETracker software for tracking weather adjusted
  • List of specific energy savings opportunities (ESO). Each ESO includes the following:
    • Specific recommendation
    • Estimated savings
    • Estimated implementation cost
    • Estimated simple payback

Energy savings from utility bills energy costs for commercial buildings are about $2.00 per conditioned square foot per year. The cost for a UD-BEC assessment is generally about $0.10 per conditioned square foot of floor area.

Net-Zero Energy Building Design Assistance

The University of Dayton Building Energy Center (UD-BEC) can provide engineering and economic analysis to support the design of net-zero energy buildings. Net-zero energy building design assistance helps integrate energy efficiency and renewable energy options under a unified approach.

UD-BEC Net-Zero Energy Building design assistance design assistance can include:

  • Development hour-by-hour energy simulation model of baseline design
  • Hour-by-hour simulation of solar photovoltaic/solar thermal/wind turbine system performance
  • Baseline sizing of solar photovoltaic/solar thermal/wind turbine systems
  • Identification of energy efficiency opportunities
  • Integrated approach for selecting most cost effective energy efficiency and renewable energy options.

The cost for this service is generally $2,000, payable within 30-days of receipt of final report.

Solar, Wind and Daylighting Analysis

The University of Dayton Building Energy Center (UD-BEC) can provide independent engineering and economic analysis of renewable energy systems including:

  • Solar photovoltaic
  • Active solar thermal
  • Passive solar
  • Daylighting
  • Wind power

The cost for this service is negotiable depending on scope of work.

Phase-Change Material and Thermal Mass Analysis

The University of Dayton Building Energy Center (UD-BEC) has experience in the analysis and application of phase-change materials and thermal mass in buildings to reduce peak loads and moderate temperatures. See ‘Selected Publications’ for more information on this work.

The cost for this service is negotiable depending on scope of work.

Energy Use and CO2 Emission Tracking and Benchmarking

The University of Dayton Building Energy Center (UD-BEC) can help building owners track weather/occupancy/sales/production adjusted energy use and CO2 emissions by single or multiple buildings from utility or sub-metered data. This information is useful for the following purposes:

  • Measuring the impact of energy efficiency initiatives
  • Identifying energy-efficiency opportunities through comparisons over time and between buildings

The cost for this service is negotiable depending on scope of work.

Building Energy Center Image

Contact us

Dr. Kevin Hallinan
Professor, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Director, Building Energy Center

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Students

Kettering Labs Room 375
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
University of Dayton
Dayton, Ohio 45469-0238
Phone: (937)-229-2843
Fax: 937-229-4766