Black Madonnas in Various Countries

Black Madonnas: Still Black and Still Venerated

– Vincenzina Krymow, July 1998

Many images of the Black Madonna still exist today. Ean Begg reports the existence at one time or another of 450, mostly in Europe, and Marie Durand-LeFebvre reported on 272, mostly in France. Following are listed those images of the Black Madonna which according to reports still exist, are still black and can still be seen. Many more are found in the literature but some were destroyed during the French Revolution and religious wars, some have disappeared or are in private collections, a few have been lightened or repainted and are no longer black and still others are copies of the more famous Black Madonnas such as those of Le Puy or Guadalupe. They are not included in this list.

Those which follow generally have their origins in the middle ages or earlier. Sometimes an ancient Black Virgin is destroyed and replaced by another, and these are included if they also are old. Modern versions and recent copies or statues are not included, with the exception of the Black Madonna at St. Gervazy, a copy from the Louvre museum workshops.

A few are included because several sources indicate they are Black Madonnas, even when a local official claims they are not Black Madonnas.

Most of the Black Madonnas are found in churches, chapels and sanctuaries. A few are in museums. Most are sculpted, usually out of wood, sometimes from stone and one was cast in lead. Some are paintings, most of them attributed to St. Luke. A few are icons and several are frescoes.

The majority of the Black Madonnas listed are found in France - perhaps because much of the earliest research was French. More recently additional Italian and Spanish Black Madonnas have been identified by several authors.

List of Black Madonnas: Belgium | Croatia | Ecuador | England | France | Germany | Hungary | Ireland | Italy/Sicily | Lithuania | Luxemburg | Malta | Mexico | Poland | Portugal | Romania | Spain | Switzerland | United States

Guide to abbreviations:
BV - Black Virgin
c - circa
C - century
OL - Our Lady
N-D -Notre Dame
Rev. - French Revolution


BELGIUM

Bruges West-Vlaanderen
In the Church of Our Lady of the Pottery attached to the Pottery Museum BV dated 1676, painting of Moeder van Regula van Spaignen, Virgin with totally black face and hands holds white Christ Child.
In courtyard of Capuchin Church in Boeveriestraat, N-D de Lorette, standing statue of Mary Mother of God, without child, black wood, recently restored and repainted. Tourist office says it was blackened by time and the elements.
In church of Saint Sauveur, N-D de Lorette, 17 C.
In church of Ste. Elizabeth, N-D de Spermalie, wood, repainted.

Brussels
In Church of St. Catherine, De Zwerte Lieve Vrouwo (the black beloved lady), 14 C?, white stone painted black.
In church of Sainte Gudule, Sainte-Marie Liberatrice.

Dinant Namur
In sanctuary of Foy-N-D, N-D de Foy, statue discovered by a woodcutter in the heart of an ancient oak on 6 July 1609, could be N-D de Dinant--spared during Rev.

Hal Brabant
In Church of St. Martin, Our Lady of Hal, BV in majesty suckling the Infant Jesus, early 13 C, walnut.

Lier Antwerpen
In Kluizekerk (Dominican Church), De Bruine Lieve Vrouw, OLV ter Gratien (OL of Grace)
Nigra sum sed formosa, 17 C, oak.

Poperinge
In Church of St. Bertin, tiny BV and child half-way up an oak tree.

Tongeren Limburg
The original BV, 12 C, Sedes Sapientiae, OL in Labour, now in the treasury.
In church, miraculous crowned statue of OL of Tongeren, Cause of Our Joy, 1497, dark walnut.

Tournai
In Cathedral of N-D statue of N-D la Brune, N-D Flamande or de Tournai,
gift of Spanish officer in 1568 replacing the Old Madonna destroyed in 1566,
large brown standing statue, stone, 16 C.

Verviers Liege
In Church of N-D des Recollets, Vierge Noire des Recollets or Mere de Misericorde (Mother of Mercy), 1674,
made of two sandstone blocks painted black, standing.

Walcourt Namur
In Basilique St. Materne, built 992 and consecrated 1026, present miraculous BV dates from this period, making it one of the oldest statues of the Virgin in the west, wood, covered in silver 11 C.
Popular legend says statue blackened in fire of 1220; and it does appear that the left side of the face was darkened as a consequence of fire. However, Etienne Mont informs us that the black color of the metal portion is due to oxidation. The wooden statue is covered with silver plates which have oxidized over time.

Top


CROATIA

Marija Bistrica

Statue of Black Madonna, Holy Mary, comes from 15 C, moved to church at Marija Bistrica around 1545 because of threat from the Turks, in 1650 hidden in a church wall under a stained glass window and lost; found in 1684.

Main altar of church honors Bistricka Gospa (Lady of Bistrica) and church is now named Majka Bozja Bistricka (God's Mother of Bistrica).Visited by Pope John Paul II October 1998.

Top


ECUADOR

Quinche
In sanctuary Church, Nostra Signora del Quinche, or la Pequenita (the little one).
In 1586 the Indians asked sculptor Diego de Robles to carve them an image out of native cedar like that of Guadalupe (Mexico).

Top


ENGLAND

Mayfield Sussex
In Convent of the Holy Child, former manor house of the Archbishops of Canterbury,
statue in the chapel given to one of the nuns in the 19 C, Blue Guide dates it at c 1460, very dark wood.
Seated Madonna in courtyard room, wood, slightly less dark than first, found in ruins of farmer's storage room during restoration of buildings in the 1850s.

Walsingham Norfolk
In National Shrine of Our Lady, statue in 14 C chapel, painted. Replicas based on seal of Walshingham are dark.
In Anglican shrine, dark statue of the Virgin, based on the seal, enthroned in replica of the original sacred house.

Top


FRANCE

Aix-en-Provence (Bouches-du-Rhone)
In the Cathedral Saint-Sauveur d'Aix, a Virgin hewn from stone, seated, said to be a 1521 copy of the celebrated Vierge Noire de Notre-Dame-de-la-Seds which disappeared in the 16 C.

Arbois (Jura)
In hilltop hermitage, N-D de L'Ermitage, BV carved from miraculous oak of Montaigu, brought back by old soldier c. 1712, hidden by hermit during Rev., rediscovered 1856. Replaced 15 C statue, N-D de l-Ermitage or de Montserrat, also carved from the oak of Montaigu, which was destroyed.

Arceau (Côte d'or)
In church, N-D de Bon Secours, found 1227 by ox near green tussock, dark wood, sculpted by local artist.

Arconsat (Puy-de-Dome)
In village church, N-D d'Arconsat, 12 C, only the faces, very black, are sculpted, suggesting it was intended to be robed from its origin.

Arles (Bouches-du-Rhone)
Notre-Dame de Graces or Notre Dame des Alyscamps, given in 1203 by the archbishop of Morieres who placed it in the church of Alyscamps. Replaced in 17 C by a statue of white marble, but the original was deposited on the tomb of Saint Trophime in the chapel of Notre-Dame de Graces; another statue preceded the ancient black statue.

Aspet (Haute-Garonne)
In chapel of N-D de Miege-Coste, N-D de Meijo-Costo or Miege-Coste, c. 1680 replacing BV of 4 C, documented as BV 1682.

Aurillac (Cantal)
In Church of the Cordeliers, N-D des Neiges, formerly d'Aureinques, original BV destroyed by Huguenots, present statue of 1581 (or 17 C), wood gilded and painted, resembles BV of Le Puy. In la Maison Consulaire, la Vierge Noire au manteau, 18 C, wood polychrome.

Avioth (Meuse)
In 14 C Basilica N-D de Vie (life) or L'Epine (thorn) or de Luxembourge, 12 C, BV, oak.

La-Bastide-de-Serou (Ariege)
N-D la Noire.

Beaune (Cote d'Or)
N-D de Beune, 12 C, wood polychrome.

Boege (Haute-Savoie)
In parish church, N-D des Voirons, darkened lime, rediscovered in 1856. Said to be the most ancient sanctuary of the Virgin in Haute-Savoie.

Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais)
N-D des Anges or de Boulogne, the crypt museum contains an early 19 C BV in a white dress standing in a boat; original statue of the Virgin and Infant said to have arrived in a lowly, humble boat destroyed during the Rev. as was a subsequent copy.

Bourg-en-Bresse (Ain)
In local church N-D de Bourg, standing, blackened elm or willow, found in hollow willow tree in swamp by shepherd in 13 C, badly burnt during Rev.

Bourisp (Hautes-Pyrenees)
In niche to right of entrance to church. Found by ox in a bush near a swamp. 12 C statue stolen in 1982, replaced 1986 with a wooden statue.

Brioude (Haute-Loire)
Notre-Dame de Laurie, 15 C, wood, Romanesque BV now in Rouen museum.

Capdrot (Dordogne)
In local church, N-D La Noire, wood, 19 C, statue stands on plinth behind altar; original statue hidden from Protestants in a wall, modeled after that of le Puy, ancient one disappeared 15 C, had been venerated before 12 C.

Champdieu (Loire)
BV, sometimes called Virgin of the Crusades, dark wood, 15/16 C ?, transferred from Sauvain in 1715.

Champels (Haute-Loire)
N-D des Tours or D'Estours, 11 C, wood, majeste, found by cattle, photograph in sanctuary, statue now kept at nearby Monistrol.

La Chapelle Geneste (Haute-Loire)
Enthroned and crowned BV and Child, 16 C, wood, faces very black with red lips and gleaming whites of eyes in contrast.

Chartres (Eure-et-Loir)
In the cathedral:

N-D du Pilier in nave, early 16 C replacing 13 C gilt statue, pear tree wood. N-D de Sous-Terre in the crypt, replaced in 1856 by present natural wood statue, original destroyed during Rev. was ebony.

BV on the door of the Nativity aft royal entrance to the cathedral, modeled after the BV from the crypt, destroyed in 16 C. 12 C BVs in N Rose and S Transept windows.

La Grande Chartreuse (Isere)
In monastery, BV, 16 C ?, wood, majeste, similar to BV of LePuy destroyed at Rev., reportedly taken from pagans in India.

Chatillon-sur-Seine (Cote d'Or)
N-D de Toutes (les) Graces, de Toute Grace, du Chateau or de St. Bernard, in Ecole St. Bernard and on feast days at Church of Vorles, 12 C, wood, restored 1927.

Clermont-Ferrand (Puy-de-Dome)
N-D du Port, reproduction of Byzantine Vierge de Tendresse, image known from 13 C, wood, 18 C; original from 10 -11 C disappeared during Rev..
In Church of La Croix Neyrat, N-D de Neyrat, 17 C.
In Musee Lecocq, BV de Vernols.
In Cathedral of N-D de Clermont, Romanesque BV, 10 C.
In cathedral, Notre-Dame de la Bonne-Mort, from 12 C, wood gilded and painted about 1830, discovered 1972 in mortuary chapel of a bishop.

Clery (Loiret)
N-D de Clery, wood, 17 C, replacing BV discovered by ploughing oxen 1280 and destroyed by Huguenots.
BV in underground tomb of Louis XI.

Cornas (Ardeche)
In roadside church, N-D de la Mure from Abbey of La Mure, wood, against back wall behind altar, remarkable ancient BV similar to Thuret (13 C), both perhaps copies of old BV of LePuy.

Couterne (Orne)
N-D de Lignou (Lignon), terra cotta and metal or blackened wood of 17 or 19 C, very heavy, found in hawthorn tree, hidden during Rev., later revealed itself by a great light.

Cuiseaux (Jura)
In Church of St. Thomas of Canterbury, N-D du Noyer, 1236, found in walnut tree, carved by shepherd.

Cusset (Allier)
BV, wood, 13 C, head and hands saved from flames during French Rev. by baker's wife, integrated into a copy during 19 C.

Cuxa (Pyrenees-Orientals)
In Abbey of St Michel, N-D de Pesebre (crib) or La Maureneta, 14 C, wood, may still be in Corneilla but due to be returned to 11 C crypt where earlier version known since 1040. Child holds closed book in left hand.

Decize (Nievre)
In crypt of Church of St. Are, N-D de Sous-Terre, 16 C.

La Delivrande (Calvados)
In Church of N-D de la Delivrande, N-D de la Delivrande, stone, 1580, original statue 4 C, found by sheep 11 C, destroyed during Rev.

Dijon (Cote-d' Or)
Notre Dame de Bon Espoir, in chruch of ND in Dijon (Cote-d' Or), oak, 12th century.

Dorres (Pyrenees-Orientales)
In village church, N-D de Belloch formerly in Church of Belloch, 11 C, wood, wears only a tunic and veil, oriental-looking, BV has huge hands, Child has large right hand.

Droiteval (Vosges)
In church of 12 C Cistercian Abbey, BV, late 15 C replacing earlier BV, painted stone.

Embrun (Hautes-Alpes)
Mosaic in Cathedral, copy of miraculous painting on stone of BV of Adoration, la Vierge Noire dite des Trois Rois d'Embrun, or destroyed during Rev..

Err (Pyrenees-Orientals)
In local church, N-D d'Err found in tree by cattle. wood, 12 C BV seated, Child stands at Virgin's left knee, dark gray with silver crowns.

Espalion (Aveyron)
In chapel of l'Hopital d'Espalion, La Negrette, standing, wood, no child, when painted returns to her original color, part of a retable of 14 C for chapelle of chateau de Calmont, brought back from Crusades by Lord of Calmont.

Fecamp (Seine Maritime)
In N-D du Salut chapel, BV of the sailors.

Ferrieres (Loiret)
In local church, N-D de Bethleem, standing, late 15 C, oak, gilded and worm-eaten, statue on display in the church is an exact replica of the original which is kept in a safe hiding-place.

Finestret ( Pyrenees-Orientales)
In Church of St. Colombe, BV from Spain, BV holds Child on left arm, both haloed.

Font-Romeu/Odeillo (Pyrenees-Orientales)
In local church, BV, la Vierge de l'Invention, standing, wood, spring (at side of church) and statue discovered by bull striking earth in 1113, spends summer at Font-Romeu, rest of year at Odeillo.

Gerzat (Puy-de-Dome)
In 12 C village church, N-D du Vignal, small, rustic BV, found near healing spring, moved from original site at Rev., stolen c 1975, replaced by smaller replica, painting of original shrine in church.

Goult-Lumieres (Vaucluse)
In right hand crypt chapel, N-D de Lumieres or La Santo Vierge Negro, wood, original statue there in 16th cent, lost in religious wars, rediscovered in 17 C, stolen 1979, replaced with replica.

Grenoble (Isere)
In hillside oratory, N-D de la Tronche (yule log), 1789-80, white stone intentionally blackened, replacing earlier wooden statue found on banks of Isere.

Guingamp (Cotes-du-Nord)
In church of N-D, N-D de Bon-Secours, Itron Varia Gwir Zikour (Dame Marie du Vrai Secours), N-D de Halgoet (of underground, of the hollow wood or of the willow grove), 14 C or 17 C, wood, BVs head saved at Rev., restored.

La Havre (Seine-Inferieure)
N-D du Havre de Grace, BV, massive 3 metre dark bronze statue overlooking the city and harbour from the park of the Abbaye de Graville, late 19 C.

Heas (Hautes-Pyrenees)
In rebuilt pilgrimage church, N-D de Heas, wood, 16 C?, found in rocks by shepherds near spring where two doves had been drinking, statue saved when church destroyed by avalanche 1915.

Honfleur (Calvados)
In local church, N-D d Graces, original BV an 11 C wooden statue destroyed at Rev., survived landslide which destroyed church in 1538; present church of 1615 contains a 17 C Madonna, gilded wood.

Jussey (Haute-Saone)
In Church of Jussey, N-D de Jussey, wood, carved in 1613 from wood of famous oak of Montaigu (Belgian), saved at Rev.

Laurie (Cantal)
N-D du Mont-Carmel, wood 11 C, whitened in 1883, recovered its original polychrome colors after restoration; procession from Blesle to Laurie on Whit Monday

Limoux (Aude)
In sanctuary known since 1011, Notre-Dame de Marceille, 11/12 C, black hard wood, found by cattle on a hill-top.

Longpont-sur-Orge (Seine-et-Oise)
N-D de Bonne Garde, wood, 19 C, replacement of local image destroyed at Rev., relics of old BV in new statue.

Luvigny (Vosges)
In Church of Luvigny, N-D de la Maix or de la Mer, wood, late Middle Ages.

Lyon (Rhone)
In Chapel of St. Thomas a Becket next to basilica: N-D de Fourvieres or de Bon Conseil, standing, wood, 17 C replica of ancient local image destroyed by Hugunots in 1562, on high altar. N-D de Bon Conseil, on side altar.

Maillane (Bouches-du-Rhone)
N-D de Graces, de Bethleem or de Betelen, walnut, 12 C.

Marsat (Puy-de-Dome)
In local church, N-D de Marsat, wood, 12 C, walnut, painted gesso and gilt.

Marseilles (Bouches-du-Rhone)
In Basilique Saint-Victor, N-D de la Confession, du Fenouil (fennel) or Feu-Nou (new fire), walnut, 13 C.

Mauriac (Cantal)
N-D des Miracles, 13 C, mutilated 1789, resculpted late 18 C, arms in pear wood, body in walnut, Jesus in oak.

Mayres (Puy-de-Dome)
In church in field at end of wood south of Mayres, N-D de la Roche, BV and naked Child, both crowned, in niche under middle of altar. The statue (copy) commemorates the vision of a 12 C monk, stolen at end of 18 C, brought misfortune on family of thieves, hidden in a cleft rock where later found, saved at Rev. by pious women. Original statue now stands behind the altar in the village, 14 C, stone, small, very black and shiny.

Mazan (Vaucluse)
In church east of town, N-D la Brune or La Sarcleuse, wood, 14 C, original found 11 C by women weeding field, church sacked 1794, BV thrown into brazier which exploded, saved by women, damaged by fire and sabre, restored 1954, church locked but BV visible through barred window. In midst of major cemetery dating from pagan times, N-D de Pareloup (wards off wolves) or du Puy, destroyed at Rev., replaced by polychrome Virgin without Child taming a wolf.

Mende (Lozere)
In cathedral, N-D de Mende, walnut or apple wood, no Child but red-painted robe reveals rounded breasts and prominent belly, brought back from Holy Land by Crusaders in 1253, damaged by Huguenots, saved at Rev. In glass-covered niche above water pump in rue Notre-Dame, N-D de la Fontaine or du Puits, mural above BV shows angel holding scroll with Nigra sum sed formosa (I am black but beautiful).

Meymac (Correze)
N-D de Meymac, wood, 12 C, very black faces and hands, pink fingernails, red lips, white and black eyes; BV has gold sabots and turban, very large hands, red cloak and green dress; one of the strangest and most interesting BVs.

Mezieres (Ardenns)
N-D d'Esperance, BV much venerated since found in early 10 C in the foundations of the ramparts, destroyed by Huguenots, replaced in 17 C.

Modane (Savoie)
In local church, N-D du Charmaix, white marble painted black, prob. 14 C, though said to have been venerated from 4 or 5 C, known to have been black since first document of 1623, originally under rock next to road and river, saved at Rev.; BV visible through grille, locked except during services.

Molompize (Cantal)
In church of Molompize, N-D de Molompize, 15 C, Virgin of wood, naked Child covered in stucco and painted black, original statue may have been brought back from Antioch by Crusaders.

Montmerle-sur-Saone (Ain)
In local church, N-D de Bon-Secours or des Minimes, sailors saw bronze statue in Saone which moved miraulously to site of present church; pilgrimage and church of St. Mary well established by 1192, known as black in the diocese.

Montrejeau (Haute-Garonne)
In the Petit Seminaire de Montrejeau, BV, wood. In church of N-D de Polignan in nearby village of Gourdon-Polignan, N-D de Polignan, 12 or 14 C statue, wood, discovered by bull.

Montsegur (Ariege)
In parish church, tiny, seated, gilt BV, flanked by a standing BV and St Roch.

Moulins (Allier)
N-D de Moulins, in Chapelle de la Vierge Noire in Cathedral Notre Dame, 12 C. substitute for original brought back from Crusades by St. Louis, black hard wood/wild cherry wood, also copy of original in white marble. Another statue in wood from 15 C, also seated virgin from 13 C BV of Vouroux or des Chartreux, 12 C, painted wood, in Musee de Moulins. BV of Coulandon in Seminary of Moulins.

Murat (Cantal)
N-D des Oliviers (olive-trees) - title unique in France, in Church of St. Martin, 14 C, olive wood, blackened by fire of 1492.

Myans (Savoie)
N-D de Myans, in crypt of sanctuary, wood, statue attributed to St. Luc, 12 C, restored after the Rev., 1619 document says chapel there since c 1100 with image of Notre-Dame, black and Ethiopian.

Odeillo (Pyrenees Orientales)
see Font-Romeu

Orcival (Puy-de-Dome)
N-D d'Orcival, de la Delivrance or des Fers, 12 C, recently restored, polychrome walnut wood covered in silver except face and hands which are brown, BV found when workman's hammer was thrown to determine site of church on hillock called the Tomb of the Holy Virgin. Neighboring hamlet of Briffons has copy of N-D d'Orcival.

Orleans (Loiret)
N-D des Miracles, de la Recouvrance or St Mary the Egyptian, stone, 16 C, made of two unequal stones deliberately blackened, replacing ancient wooden BV burnt by Protestants 1562, described as Vierge Noire Couronnee on prayer card, statue of Mary in black wood brought to city in 5 or 6 C by Syrian merchants.

Ornans, (Doubs)
N-D des Malades or Notre-Dame de Montaigu, in Church of St. Laurent, 1610, oak from Montaigu, considered Vierge Brune by priest. N-D du Chene (oak), in special church nearby, found in trunk of oak-tree after revelation to local girl in 1803, not considered BV by priest.

La Pacaudiere (Loire)
N-D de Tourzy, Salus Infirmorum, unknown black stone, found in forest in hollow oak pre-11 C.

Palladuc (Puy-de-Dome)
In chapel of N-D de la Lizolle, 14 C BV, wood.

Paris (Seine) N-D de Paix, 16 C, wood, in Church of Nuns of the Sacred Heart.

The most celebrated and venerated Madonna in Paris until the Rev., saved during Rev. N-D de Bonne Delivrance, LaVierge Noire de Paris, 14 C, replacing earlier BV, probably of 11C, in Church of St. Etienne des Gres, in Latin Quarter, carved in a single block of hard limestone, saved at Rev. N-D de Toutes Aides in Chapelle de l'Abbaye-aux-Bois, wood, 16/17 C copy of older BV preserved there until beginning of 20 C.

Pezenas (Herault)
N-D la Noire or de Bethleem, 12 C, in Church of St. Ursula, believed to have either arrived alone in a boat or brought by Crusader in 1310, saved at Rev. though damaged.

Pignans (Var)
N-D des Anges, found by shepherd and dog 11 C, present statue 17 C, saved at Rev, darkish wood.

Pradelles (Haute-Loire)
N-D de Pradelles, 14 C, cedar, brought back from the east by Crusader, hidden during troubles, dug up by servant girl 1512, saved from fire at Rev. by remorseful Jacobin.

Prats-de-Mollo (Pyrenees-Orientales)
N-D dell Corall (oak-tree), found in heart of oak 13 C by herdsman attracted by the strange behavior of his bull, in sanctuary of same name.

Preaux (Ain)
N-D de Preaux, 15 C, wood, found in a hollow oak.

Le Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire)
In Monastere Sainte Claire, N-D du Puy, cedar statue made by Jeremiah and brought by St. Louis, burned at Rev. replaced with copy by local artist, end of 18 C, gilded wood. Small replica of original in vestry.

Remonot (Doubs)
Elongated cedar BV in Church of Grotte N-D.

Ribeauville (Haut-Rhin)
N-D de Dusenbach, ancient BV brought back from Crusades prob. 1221, disappeared 1360, replaced with present statue of 1494, N-D du Calvaire or des Douleures, dark polylchrome pieta, hidden in cleft rock during religious wars, found by woman named Marie.

Riom (Puy-de-Dome)
La Vierge Noire de Riom, N-D de Marthuret in church of same name, 17 C, based on older prototype venerated by St. Louis in 1262, found by cattle, saved by butchers at Rev.

Rocamadour (Lot) N-D de Rocamadour, 12 C, poss. 9 C, blackened polychrome walnut wood, attributed to St. Luke, the most ancient image already in 8 C.

La Rochette (Savoie)
N-D des Plaints (lamendation), 13 C, painted wood, saved at Rev, found by shepherd who heard tearful voice from bush.

Rochefort en Terre (Morbihan)
Notre-Dame de la Ronchaye, discovered in 12 C. in a hollow tree, where it had been hidden at the time of the Norman invasion.

Ronzieres (Puy-de-Dome)
N-D de Ronzieres (brambles), wood, 13 C, original found by cattle 11 C, saved from destruction at Rev.

Roumegoux (Tarn)
N-D de la Brune, standing, wood (gilt), found by sheep, original dark stone statue destroyed by Protestants 1568, 17 C copy in church.

St. Beat (Haute-Garonne)
N-D de l'Esperance, 13 C, blackened polychrome wood.

St. Christophe-les-Gorges (Cantal)
N-D du Chateau, BV brought back from Crusades in 1098, polychrome wood, intentionally black from origin.

Saint Didier
Notre-Dame de la Peiniere, 16 C, in Chapelle de N.D. de la Peiniere.

St.-Genes-De-Lombaud (Lot-et-Garonne)
N-D de Tout Espoir, walnut, 14 C or earlier, saved at Rev. but mutilated.

St. Germain-Laval (Loire)
N-D de Laval, wood, 13 C, in Church of Baffy, BV brought back from Crusades by St. Louis, wood of somber color.

St. Gervazy (Puy-de-Dome)
11 C wood statue stolen 1983, exact replica in plastic from the workshops of the Louvre replaced the original Aug. 1983. Statue reported to appear at auction in Madrid in 2000, and returned by Spanish police.

St. Guiraud (Herault)
N-D de Consolation or N-D de la Noire, hard wood, possibly original BV of 950, discovered 14 C, saved from Protestants and at Rev.

St. Jean-Cap-Ferrat (Alpes-Maritimes)
Madone de St. Hospice or La Vierge Noire, bronze, 16/17 C, in cemetery overlooking sea.

St. Martin-de-Vesubie (Alpes-Maritimes)
N-D de Fenestre, Ste. Marie de la Mer, cedar, 13 C, in legend attributed to St. Luke, brought by St. Mary Magdalene to France, polylchrome since 1974 restoration.

St. Nectaire (Puy-de-Dome)
N-D du Mont Cornador, 12 C, polychrome statue of oak covered in pasted cloth, considered a BV in the Auvergne.

St. Paul (Alpes-Maritimes)
BV of 13 C, in treasury of parish church, restored 17 C, Oriental appearance.

Notre-Dame d'Ay (Saint Romain d'Ay)
Chapel constructed 9 C, dedicated to the Virgin, BV installed in 12 C, more recent polychrome statue with black face and hands.

St. Quentin-la-Chabanne (Creuse)
N-D de Sous-Terre, wood, 17 C, relacing BV destroyed by Protestants, in 11 C crypt.

St. Savin (Hautes-Pyrenees)
BV of the Crusades, 12 C, Syrian, possibly copy of N-D de Confession at Marseilles, the original, ancient Madonna of the Abbey Church, now removed to museum.

Sarrance (Basses-Pyrenees)
N-D de Sarrance, de la Pierre or La Sarrasine, difficult to date, black stone, found by bull swimming in river 8 C, hidden from Protestants 1569 in mountain cave, saved at Rev., damaged arms and head have been replaced.

Seyssel (Ain and Haute-Savoie)
N-D Du Pont or Du Rhone, 14 C, formerly in sanctuary, brought back from last Crusade by Comte de Seyssel, now in church, saved at Rev., consists of two heads on uncarved block of wood.

Tarascon (Bouches-du-Rhone)
In presbytery of Ste. Marthe, N-D du Chateau, La Belle Brianconne or La Venerade, ancient, larch-wood, polychrome traces, brought from Briancon in 1348 by hermit Imbert, fleeing Vaudois invasion.

Tarascon-sur-Ariege (Ariege)
In chapel of Sabart, N-D du Sabart or de la Victoire, Renaissance, no child, only head and hands sculpted.

Thuir (Pyrenees-Orientales)
In church of St. Peter, N-D de la Victoire, late 12 C, lead poured from a mold, devotion from 13 C. but first mention of statue 1567, original statue perhaps 7 C, lost for long time then found by shepherd in search of lost sheep on present site.

Thuret (Puy-de-Dome)
Vierge des Croisades, 13 C, similar to Cornas and Aurillac, all perhaps influenced by ancient BV of Le Puy.

Tocane-St. Apre (Dordogne)
N-D de Perduz, wooden, chocolate-colored BV, of uncertain age, crusader of local family promised church to Virgin on safe return, found statue in ruins of old chapel.

Toulouse (Haute-Garonne)
N-D la Noire or de la Daurade, painted wood, only head and bust sculpted, 1806, replacing very different older gilt statue with black hands and face destroyed at Rev. N-D du Palais or La Noire, dark stone, formerly in niche on Palais du Justice, now on front of Jesuit Church.

Tournus (Saone-et-Loire)
N-D la Brune, 12 C, cedar, in 15 C side chapel of St. Philibert, painted and gilded wood, considered one of the most beautiful Vierges de Majeste de l'art roman.

Tudet-Gaudonville (Gers)
Notre-Dame de Protection, 14 C statue replacing original of 1152, black marble, found by herdsman in a spring, damaged at Rev, partially restored 1963.

Valfleury (Loire)
Notre-Dame de Valfleury, La Vierge au Genet d'Or (golden broom) or La Vieille Dame, early 12 C, wood, original found in flowering broom bush at Christmas 800, entire figure completely reconstructed in 1869, statue black in 19 C, now dark natural wood with some traces of polychrome.

Vassiviere (Puy-de-Dome)
Present BV c. 1805 replaces ancient N-D de Vassiviere, destroyed at Rev., black wood, reported to be a copy but crudely carved with peasant features, unlike famous majestes of the Auvergne, replica in Church of St. Andre at Besse. BV also in the chapelounne, behind a grille near a healing spring on site of a BV in niche of wall of old church of Vassiviere still standing after church destroyed.

Vauclair (Cantal)
N-D de Vauclair, 11/12 C. majeste, wood with tints of green and ochre, traditionally brought from Antioch but probably local work, in restoration of 1954 lost some of the aspects of the Vierge Noire evident before, still dark.

Velars-sur-Ouche (Cote d'Or)
Church of N-D d'Estang or N-D des Tans, oak polychrome statue of Virgin found by peasants digging July 2 (feast of Visitation) 1434 on Mt. Afrique where the grass was always green and the oxen halted.

Vernary (Allier)
BV at Vernay (Allier) in Church of Vernary; 13/14 century; late example of seated Virgin; Child holds fish.

Vichy (Allier)
N-D des Malades, in Church of St. Blaise, head saved at Rev. and attached to new statue, no Child.

Villedieu (Cantal)
N-D de Villedieu in Church of N-D., tiny ancient statuette encased in the stand of the gilt Virgin, found in a hedge by oxen late 11 C.

Villeneuve-sur-Lot (Lot-et-Garonne)
N-D de Liesse, de Gauch (joy) de Toute Joie et de Toute Grace, now generally known as N-D du Bout du Pont, in chapel of N-D du Bout du Pont, wood, poss. 17 C, original venerated since 1289, found in the R. Lot by a sailor.

Top


GERMANY

Altotting Bavaria
In Heilige Kapelle, Unsere Liebe Frau von Altotting, c 1330, lime-wood, standing.

Beilstein (Trier), Germany

Miraculous Black Madonna, Carmelite Church of St. Joseph
- Statue
- Twelfth-Thirteenth Century
- Spanish Origin
- Statue left behind by Spaniards after retreat at the end of the thirty-year war (1648).

Cologne/Koln
In Church of St.Kolumba, Madonna in der Trummern (ruins), stone, 1460-80 of Cologne school, church totally destroyed in WW II except for one pillar upon which stood the Virgin, hardly damaged, Child lost head and limbs.
In Church of St. Maria in der Kupfergasse, Schwarze Mutter Gottes, standing, brought to Cologne 1630 by six Dutch Carmelite nuns seeking refuge from thirty Years War, church destroyed in air raid 1942, BV saved.
Two paintings of BVs in Andreas Kirche.

Freising Bavaria

In Diocesan Museum of Cathedral, Freisinger Lukasbild (painting by St. Luke), early 13 C, in Freising 1440, painted on lime-wood.

Hirschberg/Leutershausen
In Church of St Johannes, Vordergasse, Schwarze Madonna von Leutershausen, 1742 or earlier, wood, only faces and hands carved.

Kevelaer North-Rhine-Westphalia
ULF (Our Dear Lady) of Luxemburg, Consolatrix Afflictorum, yellowing paper picture, printed from a copper-plate in Antwerp 1640, story of peddler passing a wayside shrine near K, voice said “Build a little chapel for me here,” heard voice two more times, saved money for chapel. Wife had a vision of the picture of OL of Luxemburg which two soldiers tried to sell her, too expensive, finally bought it and placed in the shrine.

Magdeburg
In Cathedral, BV 1270/80, sandstone, polychrome since 19 C.

Neukirchen-beim-Heiligen-Blut (Holy Blood) Bavaria
BV, c 1400, Bohemian, standing, on high altar, attributed to St Luke.

Oggersheim-Ludwigshafen Rhineland-Palatinate
In Minorite pilgrimage Church of Maria Himmelfahrt, Loretto Madonna or Gnadenmutter (mother of grace), 1729, wood, standing, inspired by OL of Loretto but not a copy.

Regensburg Bavaria
In Stiftskirche von Lieben Frau zu Alten Kappelle, Gnadenbild, painting attributed to St Luke, given to Emperor Henry II by Pope Benedict VIII who gave to it the Stiftskirche 1014, silver and copper gilt frame added 1752.

Top


HUNGARY

Budapest
In museum of the Church of St. Matthew, Black Madonna of Loretto, 17 C.

Top


IRELAND

Dublin
In Carmelite Church, in niche above high altar, BV, OL of Dublin, standing dark oak statue of the Virgin, late 15 or early 16 C, possibly carved by student of Durer.

Top


ITALY

Bari
S. Maria de Constantinopoli in Cathedral, attributed to St. Luke.

Bologna
Madonna de la Guardia, attributed to Luke, in sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca.

Cagliari
BV in Sanctuario di Bonaria.

Crotone Catanzaro
Madonna di Capocolonna, painting attributed to St Luke but probably early 13 C, in cathedral, copy in the sanctuary of the Madonna di Capocolonna.

Farfa
In Benedictine Abbey, Madonna di Farfa, fragmentary 14 C copy of orig. painting attributed to St Luke brought to Italy in 7 C by St. Thomas of Morienna, all that remains are four heads of the Virgin, Child and two angels.

Loreto Ancona
"Strange statue of a lady" discovered in a house near a laurel grove (loreto) after 1294; house said to be the Holy House of Mary transported from Nazareth by angels to Italy in 1294. Statue accidentaly destroyed by fire and replaced in 1921 by a new standing figure, three feet high, carved from the wood of a cedar grown in the Vatican. (Begg)

Manfredonia/Siponto
In Cathedral of S. Lorenzo/PopeJohn XXIII, la Sipontina or the Madonna dagli Occhi Sbarrati (staring eyes), wood, 11 C, almost life-size, enthroned, both figures have brown faces. In upper church painting of Madonna of Siponto, before 13 C, prob. early Byzantine, painted on cedar-wood.

Casale Montferrato Alesandria
In Santuario di Crea, Nostra Signora di Crea, cedar-wood, long olive-brown face of oriental type and proportions, attributed to St Luke, one of three BVs brought back to Italy by St. Eusebius from the Holy Land c 345.

Foggia
In shrine, BV, l’Lincoronata dei Povere (of the poor), appeared in an oak-tree 1001 in the forest of Cervaro nearby.

Genoa
BV in church of San Lazaro and S. Stefano.

Matera
In church of S. Maria di Constantinopolli, BV la Madonna Bruna.

Montevergine Avellino
In Santuario di Montevergine, Madonna di Montevergine, di Constantinopoli, Madonna Bruna or Mamma Schiavona (Slav), very large painting on pine-wood, c 1290.

Naples
In Basilica-Santuario del Carmine Maggiore, La Madonna Bruna, 12 C, wood.

Oropa Biella
In sanctuary, BV, La Madonna di Oropa, carved in resinous wood (cedar), faces and hands colord black, attributee to St. Luke, statue ancient but shows no sign of age, may be 13 C, traditionally brought from Holy Land by St. Eusebius of Vercelli c 345.

Padua
In Basilica del Santo (Anthony of Padua), in chapel of La Madonna Mora, La Madonna Mora (Moorish, brunette), 1396, skin soft beige-brown. On high altar, bronze Madonna and Child by Donatello, 1445/50.

Pisa
BV in church of San Francesco

Positano
In church of S. Maria, painting of BV in gold frame.

Rome
In Santa Maria Maggiore, Salus Populli Romani, painting attributed to St. Luke from 7 or 9 Cent., possibly copy from 13 C.
S. Maria Nova, miraculous Madonna said to be the oldest in Rome.
S. Maria in Ara-Coeli, on the Roman Capitol, BV attributed to St. Luke, probably 10 C.
S. Maria in Trastevere, S.Maria in Cosmedin, painted image attributed to St. Luke.
S. Maria del Popolo, painted image attributed to St Luke, 13 C.
SS Domenico e Sisto - attributed to St. Luke.
S. Maria di Loreto, Madonna of Loreto on high altar.
S. Maria di Montserrato in church of same name.

Seminara
In the Duomo, BV, Maria Santissima dei Poveri, found in a bush by a poor peasant, very black.

Venice
in S. Maria della Salute, La Madonna della Salute, 12 C icon.

SICILY

Caltabellotta
In church of Sant’ Agostino, Maria Santissima dei Maracoli, also called Madonna del Acqua; Christ is black, Madonna less dark, more like a mulatta, considered black discovered in a fig-tree in 1546 by an artisan.

Custonaci
In sanctuary, Maria Santissima di Custonaci, landed from a storm-beleagured ship, crowned in 1752 by the Vatican for her many miracles, also known as Madonna of the Water; painted on wood, prob. Flemish school.

Giarre
In the church, painting of Madonna della Strada.

Messina
Madonna di Montalto, in church on hill of La Capperrina, arrived by sea, covered in silver except for the faces.

Milicia
In church, Madonna della Milicia, legend that it is a 7 C painting placed in the church in 1077 by Norman conqueror; experts say it is in 15 C Catalan style.

Piazza Aermerina
In the Duomo, BV, OL of Victories, attributed to St. Luke, painted on a rectangle of raw silk.

Randazzo
On north portico of church, Madonna del Pileri, 10 C Byzantine fresco.

Tindari
In Santuario Maria Santissima del Tindari, La Madonna Nera, attrbuted to St. Luke, BV washed ashore in casket, wooden statue.

Vena
In church, Maria Santissima della Vena, BV painted in tempera on very ancient table of cedar of Lebanon, believed to date from first centuries of Christianity.

Top


LITHUANIA

Vilnius
Virgin of Ostra Brama (sharp corner), behind glass above an arch at one of the old fortified gateways of the city.

Top


LUXEMBURG

Schwarze Muttergottes, also known as Stella Coeli, in Church of St. Jean, statue of BV came in 1805 from Abbey of Marienthal, walnut, probably late 14 C from Cologne.

Top


MALTA

La Valette -St. Mary of Damascus, painting attributed to St. Luke.
Citta Vecchio - BV.
San Lorenzo Burgo - painting attributed to St. Luke.
Medina - Madonna of St. Luke in cathedral.

Top


MEXICO

Guadalupe
In Cathedral of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, painting, standing, almost life-size.

Top


POLAND

Czestochowa Basilica in the Jasna Gora monastery, the Virgin of Czestochowa, lime-wood, painting attributed to St. Luke, restored 1433.

Top


PORTUGAL

Madeira Funchal
BV, OL of Dolours in sacristy of cathedral.

Nazare
Nossa Sra de Nazare (Nazareth) or Pederneira (black stone), legend dates image to 4 C.

Top


ROMANIA

Bucharest
At St. Vinera, a Virgin with face black as coal.

Top


SPAIN

Agreda Soria
In church of Na Sra de los Milagros, BV of the Templars of Agreda.

Aranzazu Arantzazu Guipuz-coa
Above high altar in Franciscan basilica, Andra Mari de Arantzazu, found in 1469 by a shepherd in branches of a hawthorn tree after a vision.

Los Arcos Navarra
In parish church, Santa Maria de los Arcos, !4 C, polychrome, oak, known as Virgen Morena (dark).

Astrain
In hill-top hermitage, BV, La Virgen del Perdon venerated since 14 C.

Barcelona
in church of Na Sra de la Merced, the Princess of Barcelona, la Mare de Deu de la Merce, venerated since 13 C, polychrome. In Museo de Arte de Cataluna, finest collection of BVs in the world, acc. to Begg.

Burgui
In mountain-top hermitage, BV, Virgen de la Pena.

Calatrava le Vieja
In Ermita Santario de la Encarnacion, BV.

Carrizo de la Ribera
In a hermitage, BV Na Sra del Villar.

Carrizosa
In hermitage of Na Sra de la Carrasca (pine-oak), BV.

Candelaria Tenerife, Canary Islands
In Basilica of Na Sra de Candelaria, BV, found near beach of Chemisay in 1390 by two Guanche shepherds and first object of pagan cult, fifty years later moved to grotto and revealed as Madonna, swept away during a storm in 1826 and replaced.

Chipiona Cadiz
In Franciscan Sanctuary de la Regla, Nuestra Senora de la Regla, 12/112 C, small wooden statue, Virgin black, Child white, mutilated 16 C but head, bust and much of legs saved.

Cuenca
In church of San Anton, La Virgen de la Luz (light), BV found by shepherd in cleft rock by river after apparition of light.

Daroca Zaragoza
In Eglesia Colegiata de Sta Maria, Na Sra La Goda (Goth), ancient, gilt wood, reputed to be the work of Goths, but dated at c 1300.

Estella Navarra
In Real Basilica de Na Sra del Puy, Na Sra del Puy, 8 or 12 C, polychrome wood covered in silver, found in cave after apparition to shepherds in 1085.

Fuenterrabia Guipuz-coa
In Church of Sta Maria, Na Sra de Guadalupe, 15 C, wood; also carved on Puerta Sta Maria.

Guadalupe Caceres
In the Camariin of the monastery church, La Virgen de Guadalupe, OL of Silence, Patroness of Extremedura and All the Spains, said to be buried in 711, found perfectly preserved after an apparition of the Virgin by a cowherd in 1326.

Huesca
In Grail Church of S. Pedro el Viejo, BV Na Sra de las Nieves (snows).

Lluch Majorca In monastery church, Na Sra de Lluc or La Moreneta, stone, found in cleft rock by shepherd boy and hermit 1240, hidden from Moors 9 C. In museum, alabaster Virgin, turned black during journey from Belgium in 1518.

Madrid
In Ch of Na Sra de Atocha, Na Sra de Atocha (Antioch), very black, 12 C, saved when church destroyed 1808, legend that it was sculpted by St. Luke.

Mijas
BV, La Virgen de la Cueva, in a chapel adapted from a natural cavern.

Mogrony
In church of S. Pere, BV called moreneta, discovered by two oxen at the foot of the spring with a vase of lilies at site of present sanctuary, 12 C, wood, restored after 1939 but still black.

Monfrague
In Castle of Monfague, BV sculpted by St Luke and brought back from Jerusalem by Rodrigo, Count of Sarria.

Montserrat Barcelona
La Virgen de Montserrat or La Moreneta, said to be found among the rocks shortly after 888, said to be carved by St. Luke, wood, present statue is 12 C majesty.

Morcin
In octagonal Templar hermitage, Na Sra del Monsagro.

Muskilda
In Santuario de Muskilda, BV, found in oak by shepherd.

Navas de San Juan
BV, Na Sra de la Estrella in sanctuary of that name.

Nuria Gerona
BV, N-D de Nuria, painted wood, said to be hidden during Moorish occupation and lost till discovered in 1032, preserved in Geneva during Civil War.

Olot Gerona
In Santuari de la Mare de Deu del Tura, Mare de Deu del Tura, 11/12 C, wood, legend that it was dug up in 872 on spot where bull roaring strangely.

Paderne
BV, Na Sra de Pedernere (black stone) in small hermitage nearby.

Palencia
Na Sra de la Dehesa Brava or Sta Maria de Husillos, 12/12 C, gilt and enameled copper, poss. from Limoges, in the Episcopal Palace.

Pena de Francia Salamanca
In Dominican shrine of Na Sra de la Pena de Francia, La Virgin Morena, Queen of Castile, legend dates it to time of Charlemagne, lost, then found in 1434 in a cave after Virgin appeared to a French Franciscan from Paris and told him to go there.

Ponferrada
BV said to have been brought back from Jerusalem prior to 1178 when it was found inside an aged holm-oak and named Na Sra de la Encina del Bosque Sagrado (holm-oak of the sacred wood). Disappeared in 1573 and replaced by a 16 C version.

El Puig
In local church, Templar BV carved from one of the stones from the cover of the Blessed Virgin Mary’s tomb at Ephesus, said to have to have been discovered buried inside a bell in early 13 C

Riglos
Two BVs in church.

Salamanca
In the old Cathedral, Na Sra de la Vega, 12 C, wood plated with copper and Limoges enamel on throne.

Salinas de Anana
In parish church:
Na Sra de Villacones, 13 C BV;
Na Sra de la Redonda or de la O (cry of parturition?);
BV of slightly more recent date.

San Marcos Tenerife Canary Islands
BV in small chapel near Icod de los Vinos.

San Vicente de la Sonsierra
In church of Santa Maria de la Piscina, BV carved by St. Luke.

Solsona Lerida
In cathedral, Vierge Noire of Solsona, La Mare de Deu del Claustre, 12 C, stone.

Tarazona Zaragoza
In Chapel of the Virgin of the Rosary in the cathedral, Na Sra del Rosario, 13 C, Gothic, polychrome wood.

Toledo
In cathedral:
La Virgen Blanca, 15 C, considered Virgen Morena;
statue of La Esclavitud de Na Sra del Sagrario, very dark patroness of Toledo.

Tolosa
In church of S. Maria, BV Virgin of Zaskeen.

Torreciudad
BV said to have been popular goal of pilgrims for over eight hundred years in new basilica.

Ujue Navarre
In parish church, Sta Maria la Real or de Usua (dove, in Basque), 11 C, alder-wood plated with silver.

Zaragoza/Saragossa
In second Cathedral of Na Sra del Pilar, Virgin of the Pillar, 15/16 C, marble covered in silver.

Zocueca
In sanctuary of La Virgen de Zocueca, BV.

Top


SWITZERLAND

Ascona Ticino
In small wayside shrine, La Capella Nera, BV in ceramic, 16 C ?, called La Donna della Verita (The Lady of Truth).

Einsiedeln Schwyz

In the Abbey Church of the Benedictines, OL of the Hermits, Die Schwarze Madonna, Madonna in the Dark Wood, Our Dear Lady of Einsiedeln (hermits), c 1466, wood.

Island of Mainau, Lake Constance

Die Schwarze Madonna, in Kirche St. Marien, eighteenth Century copy of Einsiedeln Madonna by Johann Baptist Babel, master of late Swiss Baroque art, placed in the church 1757.

Lenz/Lantsch
In parish church, Einsiedler Muttergottes, c 1745, wood.

Top


UNITED STATES

New York
In Cathedral of St John the Divine, BV icon.

In chapel of the Synod of the Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church, OL of Kursk, found in 1295 at the foot of an old oak-tree near Rilsk, later placed in Kursk Cathedral, escaped destruction several times, found in Munich 1945 and taken to NY.

Top


Bibliography

Angerhausen, Jullius, Die schwarze Muttergottes - Legenden um die Schmerzhafte von Telgte, Verlag J. Schnellsche Buchhandlung, 1952

Atienza, Juan G., Nuestra Senora de Lucifer, Martinez Roca, 1991.

de Bascher, Dom Jacques, La Vierge noire de Paris, Tequi, Paris, 1979.

Bayard Jean-Pierre, Déesses mères et Vierges noires: répertoire des Vierges noires par département, Editions duKocher, Monaco 2001.

Begg, Ean, The Cult of the Black Virgin, Penguin Books, London, revised 1996.

Benko, Stephen, The Virgin Goddess - Studies in the Pagan and Christian Roots of Mariology, E. J. Brill, Leiden, NY, Koln, 1993.

Birnbaum, Lucia Chiavola, Black Madonnas - Feminism, Religion, and Politics in Italy, Northeastern University Press, Boston, 1993.

Bonvin Jacques, Vierges noires: la réponse vient de la terre, Dervy-Livres, Paris 1988.

Cassagnes-Brouquet, Sophie, Vierges Noires - regard et fascination, Editions du Rouergue, Rodez, 1990.

Cassagnes-Brouquet, Sophie, Vierges Noires - regard et fascination, Editions du Rouergue, Rodez, 2000.

Charpentier, Louis, The Mysteries of Chartres Cathedral, English translation by Ronald Fraser, Research into Lost Knowledge Organization, London, 1972.

Chiavola Birnbaum Lucia, Black Madonnas: Feminism, Religion and Politics in Italy, Northeastern University Press, Boston 1993.

Cruz, Joan Carroll, Miraculous Images of Our Lady, Tan Books and Publishers, Rockford, Ill., 1993.

Delaporte, Y. Les, Notre-Dame de la Cathedrale de Chartres, E. Houvet, Chartres MCMLV, Second Edition

Durand-LeFebvre, Marie, Etude sur L’Origine des Vierges Noires, G. Durassie & Cie, Paris, 1937.

Expert, Chanoine L., La Vierge noire de Paris - Notre-Dame de Bonne Delivrance, Desclee de Brouwer, Paris, 1933.

Hani Jean, La Vierge noire et le mystère marial, Trédaniel, Paris 1995.

Herrera, Rafael Alarcon, La Otra Espana del Temple, Martinez Roca, 1988.

Huynen Jacques, L'énigme des vierges noires, Laffont, Paris 1972.

Iconographie de la Vierge Noire du Puy, Baptistere Saint-Jean Exposition, 1983.

L’Europe Spirituelle - Guide des Hauts Lieux - Editions “Les Cles de l’Europe,” Marseille, 1993.

Markale, Jean, La grande deesse - Mythes et sanctuaires, Albin Michel, Paris, 1997.

Moss, Leonard W. and Cappannar, Stephen C., "In Quest of the Black Virgin: She Is Black Because She Is Black," in Mother Worship - Themes & Variations, James J. Preston, ed., U. of N.C. Press Chapel Hill, 1982.

Nigra sum sed formosa: sacro e bellezza dell'Etiopia cristiana, catalogo della mostra di Venezia (13 marzo-10 maggio 2009), Terra ferma;Vicenza 2009

Oleszkiewicz-Peralba Malgorzata. The Black Madonna in Latin America and Europe: Tradition and Transformation, University of New Mexico, 2009.

Saillens Emile., Nos Vierges noires, leurs origines, Editions universelles, Paris 1945.

Schreiner Klaus, Maria. Jungfrau, Mutter, Herrscherin, Carl Hanser, Munchen 1994.

More Information

International Marian Research Institute

300 College Park 
Dayton, Ohio 45469 

Connect