Lexicon of Marian Art Music

Lexicon of Marian Art Music

This material was compiled by Deyanira Flores, S.T.D. for The Marian Library/International Marian Research Institute.

Contents

Introduction
Selection of the Musical Forms
Selection of Composers
The Tables
Abbreviations
Bibliography


INTRODUCTION

"The musical tradition of the universal Church is a treasure of inestimable value, greater even than that of any other art. The main reason for this pre-eminence is that, as a combination of sacred music and words, it forms a necessary or integral part of the solemn liturgy...." (Sacrosanctum Concilium (SC) 112)

Just a glimpse at the huge quantity of masterpieces and the great names associated with them is enough to confirm that the Second Vatican Council was right indeed in calling the musical tradition of the Catholic Church a real "treasure," and in insisting that: "The treasury of sacred music is to be preserved and cultivated with great care." (SC 114)

When we examine this "treasure," we discover that the Blessed Virgin Mary occupies an extraordinary place in it. In fact, through the centuries, a large number of composers have been drawn to the Mother of God, and they have dedicated to her some of their more inspired works. The quantity of these works is so great that it is impossible to give a complete list of them; the quality of many of them is such that they can rank among the best music ever written.

Unfortunately, this "treasure" of Marian art music is now little known and very rarely performed. The purpose of the present work is to call attention to the existence of this beautiful music in honor of Our Lady, and to invite all those in charge of liturgical worship to become acquainted with it, and make use of it according to their possibilities.

It is not the purpose of this work to talk about the history and characteristics of each musical form; to give information about the possible authors and dates of composition of the various texts; or to analyze them from the Mariological point of view.

What we seek is to gather in one source as much information as possible from material that is found in encyclopedias and endless lists of works of different composers. This contribution hopes to be an interesting "manual" for musicians and anyone who is interested in religious music in general, and Marian music in particular. It can also serve as a practical index for organists and choir directors of parishes.

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SELECTION OF THE MUSICAL FORMS

So much has been written in honor of Our Lady that it is not possible to mention every thing. Therefore, four main categories of Marian music have been selected:

Antiphons
Sequences
Canticles
Hymns

For each category have been chosen the most representative examples. From the Marian Antiphons, the four Marian Antiphons most commonly used in the Liturgy today:

Alma Redemptoris Mater
Ave Regina Caelorum
Regina Caeli Laetare
Salve Regina

And the extremely important antiphon, the Ave Maria.
From the Sequences, the well-known Stabat Mater.
From the Canticles, the most famous of all, the Magnificat.
From the Hymns, the beautiful Ave Maris Stella.

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SELECTION OF COMPOSERS

Composers were chosen by country: Seventeen European countries were selected for this study, and the most significant composers of each country were included. The period of time analyzed extends from the twelfth to the twentieth centuries. In all, 155 composers were examined.

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THE TABLES

The results of this investigation are synthesized in four tables.

TABLE I

In the first table , the composers are organized by country and by date. Since it is equally interesting to see who has written Marian music, and who has not, a "Yes/No" section is included here.

Complete List of Composers by Country  Did They Write Marian Music?

AUSTRIA


CZECHOSLOVAKIA

DENMARK

ENGLAND

FINLAND

FRANCE

GERMANY

HUNGARY

ITALY

THE LOW COUNTRIES: BELGIUM, FLANDERS, HOLLAND

NORWAY

POLAND

RUSSIA

SPAIN

SWITZERLAND

TABLE II

In the second table, the musical forms (Antiphons, Sequences, Canticles, and Hymn) and the name of the composers who have written in these forms are given. This is intended for those who are interested in a specific form, e.g. Magnificat, and want to know who has written Magnificats.

ANTIPHONS

Alma Redemptoris Mater

Byrd, William
Carissimi, Giacomo
Des Prez, Josquin
Dufay, Guillaume
Dunstable, John
Haydn, Franz Joseph
Lassus, Orlando de Obrecht, Jacob
Ockeghem, Johannes
Palestrina, Giovanni Pier Luigi da
Philips, Peter
Power, Lionel
Victoria, Tomás Luis de
Willaert, Adrian

Ave Regina Caelorum

Arcadelt, Jacob
Byrd, William
D'Indy, Vincent
Dufay, Guillaume
Obrecht, Jacob
Dunstable, John
Gesualdo, Carlo
Gombert, Nicolas
Gounod, Charles
Lassus, Orlando de Morales, Cristóbal
Obrecht, Jacob
Palestrina, Giovanni Pier Luigi da
Philips, Peter
Power, Lionel
Scarlatti, Alessandro
Tallis, Thomas
Tavener, John
Victoria, Tomás Luis de

Regina Caeli Laetare

Arcadelt, Jacob
Brahms, Johannes
Busnois, Antoine
Byrd, William
Carrisimi, Giacomo
Couperin, François
Cherubini, Luigi
Des Prez, Josquin
Dufay, Guillaume
Dunstable, John
Gombert, Nicolas
Gounod, Charles
Lassus, Orlando
Lully, Jean Baptiste Morales, Cristóbal
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
Obrecht, Jacob
Palestrina, Giovanni Pier Luigi da
Philips, Peter
Power, Lionel
Senfl, Ludwig
Soler, Antonio
Sweelink, Jan Pieterszoon
Tallis, Thomas
Victoria, Tomás Luis de
Vivaldi, Antonio
Willaert, Adrian

Salve Regina

Arcadelt, Jacob
Bach, Johann Christian
Berkeley, Lenox
Bruckner, Anton
Byrd, William
Carissimi, Giacomo
Charpentier, Marc-Antoine
Couperin, François
Des Prez, Josquin
Donizetti, Gaetano
Dunstable, JohnElgar, Sir Edward
Fauré, Gabriel
Francis, Poulenc
Gombert, Nicolas
Handel, George Frederick
Haydn, Franz Joseph
Lassus, Orlando de
Liszt, Franz
Lully, Jean Baptiste Mendelssohn, Felix
Monteverdi, Claudio
Morales, Cristóbal
Obrecht, Jacob
Ockeghem, Johannes
Palestrina, Giovanni Pier Luigi da
Philips, Peter
Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista
Power, Lionel
Scarlatti, Alessandro
Scarlatti, Domenico
Schubert, Franz
Senfl, Ludwig
Soler, Antonio
Victoria, Tomás Luis de
Vivaldi, Antonioo

Ave Maria

Brahms, Johannes
Bruch, Max
Bruckner, Anton
Busoni, Ferruccio
Byrd, William
Cherubini, Luigi
Cui, Cesar
Des Prez, Josquin
Donizetti, Gaetano
Elgar, Sir Edward
Fauré, Gabriel
Franck, Cesar
Gombert, Nicolas
Gounod, Charles
Guerrero, Francisco
Haydn, Franz Joseph
Holst, Gustav
Issac, Heinrich
Janácek, Leos
Kodály, Zoltán Lassus, Orlando de
Liszt, Franz
Mendelssohn, Felix
Monteverdi, Claudio
Morales, Cristóbal
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
Ockeghem, Johannes
Palestrina, Giovanni Pier Luigi da
Philips, Peter
Rachmaninoff, Sergei
Raff, Joachim
Rossini, Gioacchino
Saint-Saëns Camile
Schubert, Franz
Schütz, Henrich
Senfl, Ludwig
Stravinsky, Igor
Tavener, John
Verdi, Giuseppe
Victoria, Tomás Luis de
Willaert, Adrian

SEQUENCE

Stabat Mater

Aichinger, Gregor
Astorga, Emanuel
Berkeley, Lenox
Bocherini, Luigi
Byrd, William
Caldara, Antonio
Des Prez, Josquin
Dohnányi, Ernst von
Dvorák, Antonín
Gounod, Charles
Haydn, Franz Joseph
Kodály, Zoltán
Lassus, Orlando de
Liszt, Franz Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
Palestrina, Giovanni Pier Luigi da
Penderecki, Krzysztof
Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista
Poulenc, Francis
Rossini, Gioacchino
Scarlatti, Alessandro
Scarlatti, Domenico
Schubert, Franz
Stanford, Sir Charles Villiers
Steffani, Agostino
Verdi, Giussepe
Vivaldi, Antonio
Wagner, Richard

CANTICLE

Magnificat

Aichinger, Gregor
Arcadelt, Jacob
Bach, Johann Sebastian
Bach, Carl Philip Emanuel
Bach, Johann Christian
Bax, Sir Arnold Trevor
Berkeley, Lenox
Bruckner, Anton
Busnois, Antoine
Carissimi, Giacomo
Charpentier, Marc-Antoine
Couperin, François
Cherubini, Luigi
Des Prez, Josquin
Donizetti, Gaetano
Dufay, Guillaume
Dunstable, John
Gombert, Nicolas
Gounod, Charles
Guerrero, Francisco
Issac, Heinrich
Lassus, Orlando de
Lully, Jean Baptiste
Mendelssohn, Felix
Monteverdi, Claudio Morales, Cristóbal
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
Obrecht, Jacob
Palestrina,Giovanni Pier Luigi da
Penderecki, Krzysztof
Pergolessi, Giovanni Battista
Rachmaninoff, Sergei
Scarlatti, Alessandro
Scarlatti, Domenico
Schubert, Franz
Senfl, Ludwig
Schein, Johann Hermann
Scheidt, Samuel
Schütz, Henrich
Soler, Antonio
Stanford, Sir Charles Villiers
Steffani, Agostino
Sweelink, Jan Pieterszoon
Szymanowski, Karol
Tallis, Thomas
Tavener, John
Vaughan Williams, Ralph
Victoria, Tomás Luis de
Vivaldi, Antonio
Willaert, Adrian

HYMN

Ave Maris Stella

Byrd, William
Charpentier, Marc-Antoine
Des Prez, Josquin
Dufay, Guillaume
Dunstable, John
Elgar, Sir Edward
Grieg, Edvard Hagerup
Liszt, Franz
Massenet, Jules
Mendelssohn, Felix
Monteverdi, Claudio Morales, Cristóbal
Obrecht, Jacob
Palestrina, Giovanni Pier Luigi da
Power, Lionel
Scarlatti, Alessandro
Sweelink, Jan Pieterszoon
Tallis, Thomas
Victoria, Tomás Luis de
Willaert, Adrian

TABLE III

The third table lists again the musical forms and the pages in the Liber Usualis where the Latin text and Gregorian Chant melodies are found. Since many composers make use of these melodies in their compositions, it is useful to know where to find them quickly. The Latin texts that were set to music are also included here.

ANTIPHONS

CANTICLE

HYMN

SEQUENCE

Texts and Melodies in the Liber Usualis 

The following information concerning each musical form was taken from the Liber Usualis, edited by The Benedictines of Solesmes, with Introduction and Rubrics in English, Desclee Company, Tournai (Belgium) - New York 1963.
Latin Texts Below

Latin Texts

For the English texts and further information of the historical background of the antiphons see:

Background:

Marian Antiphons [Alma Redemptoris, Ave Regina Coelorum, Regina Coeli, Salve Regina]

Prayers:

Antiphons of the Blessed Virgin Mary

ANTIPHONS

Alma Redemptoris Mater
Alma Redemptóris Mater, quae pérvia caeli
porta manes, et stella maris, succúrre cadénti,
súrgere qui curat, pópulo: tu quae genuísti,
natúra miránte, tuum sanctum Genitórem,
Virgo prius ac postérius, Gabriélis ab ore
sumens illud Ave, peccatórum miserére.
Ave Regina Caelorum
Ave, Regína caelórum,
ave, Dómina angelórum,
salve, radix, salve, porta,
ex qua mundo lux est orta.
Gaude, Virgo gloriósa,
super omnes speciósa;
vale, o valde decóra,
et pro nobis Christum exóra.
Regina Caeli Laetare
Regína caeli, laetáre, allelúia,
Quia quem meruísti portáre, allelúia
Resurréxit, sicut dixit, allelúia:
Ora pro nobis Deum, allelúia.
Salve Regina
Salve, Regína, mater misericórdiae;
vita, dulcédo et spes nostra, salve.
Ad te clamámus, éxsules, fílii Evae.
Ad te suspirámus, geméntes et flentes
in hac lacrimárum valle.
Eia ergo, advocáta nostra,
illos tuos misericórdes óculos
ad nos convérte.
Et Iesum, benedíctum fructum ventris tui,
nobis post hoc exsílium osténde.
O clemens, o pia, o dulcis Virgo Maria
Ave Maria
Ave, María, grátia plena, Dóminus tecum
benedícta tu in muliéribus,
et benedíctus fructus ventris tui, Iesus.
(Sancta María, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatóribus
nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.)

SEQUENCE

Stabat Mater
Stabat Mater dolorósa
iuxta crucem lacrimósa,
dum pendébat Fílius.
Cuius ánimam geméntem,
contristátam et doléntem
pertransívit gládius.

O quam tristis et afflícta
fuit illa benedícta
Mater Unigéniti!

Quae maerébat et dolébat
pia Mater, dum vidébat
Nati poenas íncliti.

Quis est homo qui non fleret,
Matrem Christi si vidéret
in tanto supplício?

Quis non posset contristári,
Christi Matrem contemplári
doléntem cum Fílio?

Pro peccátis suae gentis
vidit Iesum in torméntis
et flagéllis súbditum.

Vidit suum dulcem Natum
moriéndo desolátum,
dum emísit spíritum.

Eia, Mater, fons amóris,
me sentíre vim dolóris
fac, ut tecum lúgeam.

Fac ut árdeat cor meum
in amándo Christum Deum,
ut sibi compláceam.

Sancta Mater, istud agas,
Crucifíxi fige plagas
cordi meo válide.

Tui Nati vulneráti,
tam dignáti pro me pati
poenas mecum dívide.

Fac me tecum pie flere,
Crucifíxo condolére,
donec ego víxero

Iuxta crucem tecum stare
et me tibi sociáre
in planctu desídero.

Virgo vírginum praeclára,
mihi iam non sis amára;
fac me tecum plángere.

Fac ut portem Christi mortem,
passiónis fac consórtem
et plagas recólere.

Fac me plagis vulnerári,
fac me cruce inebriári
et cruóre Fílii.

Flammis ne urar succénsus,
per te, Virgo, sim defénsus
in die iudícii.

Christe, cum sit hinc exíre,
da per Matrem me veníre
ad palmam victóriae.

Quando corpus moriétur,
fac ut ánimae donétur
Paradísi glória. Amen.

CANTICLE

Magnificat
Magníficat ánima mea Dóminum,
et exsultávit spíritus meus in Deo salutári meo;
quia respéxit humilitátem ancíllae suae,
ecce enim ex hoc beátam me dicent omnes generatiónes.
Quia fecit mihi magna, qui potens est;
et sanctum nomen eius,
et misericórdia eius a progénie in progénies timéntibus eum.
Fecit poténtiam in bráchio suo,
dispérsit supérbos mente cordis sui,
depósuit poténtes de sede, et exaltávit húmiles,
esuriéntes implévit bonis, et dívites dimísit
inánes.
Suscépit Israel, púerum suum,
recordátus misericórdiae suae,
Sicut locútus est ad patres nostros,
Abraham et sémini eius in saécula.

HYMN

Ave Maris Stella
Ave, maris stella,
Dei Mater alma,
atque semper Virgo,
felix caeli porta.
Sumens illud "Ave"
Gabriélis ore,
funda nos in pace,
mutans Evae nomen.

Solve vincla reis,
profer lumen caecis,
mala nostra pelle,
bona cuncta posce.

Monstra te esse matrem,
sumat per te preces
qui pro nobis natus
tulit esse tuus.

Virgo singuláris
inter omnes mitis,
nos culpis solútos
mites fac et castos.

Vitam praesta puram,
iter para tutum,
ut vidéntes Iesum
semper collaetémur.

Sit laus Deo Patri,
summo Christo decus,
Spíritui Sancto
honor, tribus unus. Amen.

TABLE IV

In this table are included all the composers who wrote Marian music in the selected musical forms (Antiphons, Sequences, Canticles, Hymns), with all the information that could be found and might be useful about each work: Date of composition, opus number, singers and/or instruments needed to perform the work, etc. This list is not exhaustive, but opens the way for further investigation. It is our hope that this Lexicon will stimulate an ever increasing interest in this beautiful music and the desire to see it become an integral part of our Church life.

AUSTRIA

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

ENGLAND

FRANCE

GERMANY

HUNGARY

ITALY

THE LOW COUNTRIES

NORWAY

POLAND

RUSSIA

SPAIN

SWITZERLAND

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ABBREVIATIONS

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A - Alto

ad lib. - ad libitum

arr. - arrangement

arrs. - arrangements

B - Bass

Bar. - Baritone

BarB - Baritone Bass

bc - thorough-bass

db - double bass

eng hn - English horn

fl - flute

hn - horn insts - instruments

Mezz/Bar - Mezzo-Soprano/Baritone

movts - movements

ob - oboe

obo d'amore - oboe d'amore

Op. - Opus

orch - orchestra

org - organ

pf - pianoforte

post. - posthumous

rec - recorder

S - Soprano str - string

T - Tenor

tbn - trombone

timp - timpani

tpt - trumpet

v - voice

va - viola

vc - violoncello

vle - viole

vn - violin

vv - voices

? - unknown

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

APEL, WILLY, Harvard Dictionary of Music, Harvard University Press, MA. 1962.

ARNOLD, DENIS, New Oxford Companion to Music, Oxford University Press, N.Y. 1983.

BAKER, THEODORE, Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 8th.ed., revised by Nicolas Slonimsky, Shirmer Books, Macmillan Inc; N.Y. 1984.

DAVISON, ARCHIBALD T. and WILLI APEL, Historical Anthology of Music, Oriental, Medieval and Renaissance Music, Harvard University Press, MA 1959.

HULL, ARTHUR EAGLEFIELD, Dictionary of Modern Music and Musicians, 1924.

KENNEDY, MICHAEL, Oxford Dictionary of Music, Oxford University Press, N.Y. 1985.

SADIE, STANLEY, Ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 6th. ed., NY 1980, 20 Vols.

SANTUCCI, PELLEGRINO, La Madonna nella Musica, Capella Musicale S. Maria dei Servi, Bologna 1981, 2 Vols.

SCHMITZ, EUGENE, Das Madonnen Ideal in der Tonkunst, Leipzig 1918.

THOMPSON, KENNETH, A Dictionary of 20th. Century Composers 1911-1971, Faher & Faber, London 1973.

THOMPSON, OSCAR, International Cyclopedia of Music, Dodo, Mead &Co., N.Y. 1985.

The Liber Usualis, with Introduction and Rubrics in English. Ed. by The Benedictines of Solesmes, Society of St. John the Evangelist, Desclee & Co., Catholic Education Press, Washington D.C. 1934.

The Liber Usualis, with Introduction and Rubrics in English. Ed. by The Benedictines of Solesmes, Desclee Company, Tournai (Belgium) - New York 1963.

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