Marmion, Spirituality of

A Profile of the Spirituality of Blessed Columba Marmion

Maria Amélia W. Volz

According to Mark Tierney, OSB, the vice-postulator for Marmion’s beatification cause, Abbot Columba Marmion’s main contribution to modern spirituality was “to restore Christ as the centre”1 of our spiritual reflection. For this significant accomplishment, Blessed Marmion stands as a spiritual giant whose teaching provides a profound and effective synthesis of revelation centered in Christ through supernatural filiation to such an extent that he came to be known as the doctor of divine adoption.2 Besides its absolute centrality in Christ, his doctrine provides a comprehensive synthesis of revelation that unites theology and dogma while remaining deeply aware of human reality and genuinely practical. This paper will consider Blessed Marmion’s contribution by first placing it in the context of Benedictine spirituality; second, by considering his understanding of the human person; third, by providing a systematic presentation of his teaching on the spiritual life; and fourth, by discussing its practical aspects for daily living.

I. Marmion in the Context of Benedictine Spirituality

St. Benedict of Nursia (c. 480-543), the founder of the Benedictine Order and spirituality, was first of all a “a spiritual father” who “aimed at forming consciences capable of spiritual liberty.”3 The Benedictine family which his life and teaching brought forth is known for its radical orientation toward God, having no other purpose than “to please God alone” by following Christ to the end through perfect detachment, overcoming self-will, and embracing voluntary humiliations,4 while holding to the wisdom of discretion in its application.5 Unlike the asceticism that preceded his, St. Benedict’s teaching emphasized the importance of stability and, along with it, the virtue of obedience as “the great means of detachment”6 when exercised as “a perpetual effort of love.”7 In terms of mortification, through the Rule, St. Benedict emphasized the importance of daily duty and the virtues that support them such as patience, orderliness, and especially humility.8

Blessed Columba Marmion entered the Benedictine Order after having been a successful diocesan priest in response to an incessant divine calling. He understood the basis for this special calling by highlighting the need he felt to submit himself to obedience.9 Once a monk, he became deeply immersed in the spirituality of the Founder to the point that the “Rule of St. Benedict was imprinted on his soul.”10 Twenty-three years later, the monks of Maredsous elected him as abbot of their community. Since the Benedictine way of life had become such an intrinsic part of his being, Blessed Marmion’s own spiritual doctrine reflected the spirit of the Founder especially in its theocentrism, in its zeal for Sacred Scripture, in the centrality of Christ in accord with the Rule, “to prefer nothing whatever to Christ,”11 and in its form of asceticism grounded on obedience through love and the spirit of detachment among others.12 By the end of his life, Abbot Marmion had become a true son of St. Benedict, both as monk and as abbot. In ways not unlike the Founder, his example and teaching also became the source of a profound spiritual revival during his times and beyond.

II. Marmion’s understanding of the human person

Blessed Columba understands the human person fundamentally as a creature “capable of divine life” and as “an ecclesial being.”13 These two aspects form the basis of his theological anthropology because the core of his synthesis and contribution to spirituality may be summarized thus: God’s universal plan for humankind consists in our divine adoption into Christ, that is, in our “becoming by grace what Jesus Christ is by nature, the child of God,”14 and this takes place through our participation and incorporation into His Mysteries as taught and lived in the Church,15 His heavenly Spouse, whom he conceives “like a prolongation, through the ages, of the Incarnation.”16 Therefore, according to Marmion’s doctrine, humankind was created by God as a being capable of intimacy with Him. Moreover, since His divine plan intended to accomplish our divine adoption in Christ through the Church, humankind is also fundamentally an ecclesial being, that is, a being intended to reach intimacy with God through incorporation into the assembly of His faithful, especially through the liturgy as Marmion explained:

[I]t is especially through the liturgy that the Church educates, brings to maturity, the souls of her children so as to make them resemble Jesus and thus to perfect in them that copy or “image” of Christ which is the very shape of our planned destiny.17

Marmion’s understanding of the human person as fundamentally a creature “capable of divine life” and an “ecclesial being” informs not only his entire spiritual doctrine but also his own relationship with God through daily meditation on Christ in His Mysteries and participation in the Holy Eucharist as well as his relationship with those around him, the monks under his watchful care and the countless souls that approached him for spiritual guidance as shown through his extensive correspondence.18

III. Systematic presentation of Marmion’s teaching on the spiritual life

Through a life of heroic striving19 and “ardent contemplation of Christ,”20 Blessed Marmion developed a spiritual doctrine that is praised for synthesizing the Mystery of God’s eternal plan into a theologically-sound organic unity21 within a Trinitarian structure centered in our supernatural adoption into Christ. Moreover, he did this by relying primarily on Sacred Scripture and by uniting dogma and theology. His many retreats and reflections were eventually put into writing under the following titles: Christ the Life of the Soul, Christ in His Mysteries, Christ the Ideal of the Monk, and posthumously Christ the Ideal of the Priest. This section will consider Marmion’s sources and then the main points of his comprehensive synthesis.

In terms of his sources, Blessed Marmion made use principally of the teachings of St. Paul the Apostle, St. John the Evangelist, the Sacred Liturgy, the Rule of St. Benedict, St. Thomas Aquinas, Mgsr. Charles Gray, and St. Francis de Sales.22 From St. Paul he drew the main tenets of his teaching on divine adoption. He also relied heavily on St. John for his teaching on the life of union with God, on the Trinity, as well as on the Bread of Life. As a Benedictine, Dom Marmion held the Divine Office and the Sacred Liturgy as a main sources of light and meditation. He saw Christ “as the heart of the liturgy,” the Mass as the heart of worship, and “All true worship [as] interior.”23 St. Thomas Aquinas’s doctrine served as a sure support for his teaching, especially in relation to Christ and the Eucharist. Marmion also favored Mgsr. Gray’s ascetical writings and acknowledged his indebtedness to St. Francis de Sales, especially his Treatise on the Love of God.

In terms of his doctrine, Dom Marmion bases his comprehensive Trinitarian synthesis of our supernatural adoption into Christ on the writings of St. Paul, in particular Ephesians 1:3-6. Along with St. Paul in that passage, Marmion affirms first that it is in Christ that the Father chose us from all eternity to be holy in His sight; second, he also asserted that it was

[i]n love, ‘according to the purpose of His will,’ [that] He predestined us to be His adopted sons, through Jesus Christ, ‘unto the praise of the glory of His grace,’ by which He made us pleasing to His eyes, ‘in His beloved Son.’”24

From this and similar passages he develops a comprehensive and effective spirituality through which he leaves us a legacy and example of (1) how to live in Christ (2) as a child of the Heavenly Father, (3) as a member of the Church in obedience to the Holy Spirit, and (4) as a child of Mary.

The very center of Marmion’s spiritual doctrine is “our identification with Christ by the grace of adoption.”25 Through this he aims to show us what it means to live in Christ as a child of the Heavenly Father -- to be sons and daughters in the Only-Begotten Son. This forms the fundamental axiom of his spirituality and may be expressed thus: “All our sanctity consists in becoming by grace what Jesus Christ is by nature, the child of God.”26 Moreover, Marmion stresses the twofold connection that exists between the Eternal Word and humanity: First, God created all things by His word: “through Him all things came into being, and apart from Him nothing came to be.”27 Later, God chose to reestablish communion with us through the Sacred Humanity of the Incarnate Word: “the Son of God communicates to those who accept Him a participation in His divine filiation.”28 He did this by establishing “the Kingdom of the children of God, in which Jesus [is] the elder brother.”29 As the One through Whom all came into being and the One in Whom all are called to be recreated in communion with the Heavenly Father, Christ Jesus became the “fundamental law and standard of all sanctity”30 Whom “God gave us to be ‘our wisdom, our justification, our redemption and all our sanctity.’”31 Furthermore, filial adoption in Christ leads us to the “embrace of the Father” which supposes a life of “perfect love, confidence, and union of will [with the Father]”32 as demonstrated in Jesus’ own life: “He hath not left me alone, for I do always the things that please Him.”33

Blessed Marmion’s teaching on our supernatural adoption in Christ is also about the Divine Paternity, as the two realities are inextricably linked. As said above, he shows us how to live in Christ as a child of the Heavenly Father. In light of this, his teaching on the Divine Paternity is profound and extensive. Some highlights include his emphasis on the goodness of God’s eternal plan and universal call, the divine fecundity, and our fulfillment as the return to “the embrace of the Father.” With regards to the goodness of the divine plan, Marmion stresses with St. Paul that it was “according to the purpose of His will that He predestined us to be His adopted sons [...].” He teaches that this universal call for all His creatures to become members of “the kingdom of His children”34 reveals the ineffable love of God Who is a Father. As Marmion explains, this “love shows itself with especial radiance in the mode of effecting the Divine plan: ‘in Christ Jesus’”35--His only-begotten Son. This manifests the depth of His Fatherly love for us in desiring our holiness in His only Son. The divine fecundity is shown us not only in creation but especially through the revelation of the inner life of the Trinity: “God is fruitful; there is in Him a Fatherhood that is wholly spiritual and ineffable; He is a Father, the Source of all divine life in the Trinity.”36 Finally, as the Son lives in sinu Patris, so are all who become conformed to His image called to live “within the heart’s embrace of the Father”37 and ultimately to reach their eternal home.

This leads to the third key aspect of Marmion’s spirituality: the role of the Church under the guidance of the Holy Spirit as an extension of the Incarnation until the end of times. As Blessed Marmion explains, “God the Father unites the elect to His Divine Son in such a way that all the mysteries that Christ lived were lived by Christ as head of the Church.”38 It is through incorporation into this Mystical Body through baptism, “the efficacious sign of our divine adoption,”39 that one becomes a child of God. Furthermore, Marmion has a profound understanding of the unity between Christ and the Church as well as of the work of the Holy Spirit in the Church and in our sanctification as children of God. With regards to the unity between Christ and the Church, he says:

Always preserving due proportion, one can therefore say of the Church what Christ, her Spouse, said of Himself: that she is for us the way, the truth and the life. The way, because we can only reach God through Christ Jesus, and we can only be united to Christ through being incorporated (in fact or desire) into the Church through baptism. The truth, because with all the authority of her Founder she guards as a deposit, and proposes for our belief, the truths that Revelation has brought to us. Finally, the life, because through the public worship that she alone has the right to organize, through the sacraments which are hers alone to administer, she distributes the life of grace to souls and maintains it within them.40

Marmion also teaches the following about the work of the Holy Spirit in the Church in relation to Christ: “We may say that if Christ is chief, is head, of the Church, the Holy Spirit is its soul. It is the Holy Spirit who guides and inspires this Church keeping it, as Jesus said, in the truth of Christ [...]” Finally, the Holy Spirit, as substantial Love within the Trinity, is especially entrusted with the work of our sanctification as the “Master of [our] inner life”41 and as such is “said to ‘dwell’ in us,”42 that is, in those living the life of grace. It is in and through the Holy Spirit that we are made capable of bearing “fruits of holiness pleasing to God.”43

Finally, the fourth central point of his teaching is about the importance of living as a child of Mary. Marmion’s teaching on the Blessed Virgin is relatively concise and yet keen and penetrating. The core of his teaching on Mary may be summarized thus: “We must be by Grace what Jesus is by nature, a child of God and a child of Mary. God will recognize as his true children only those who, like Jesus, are children of Mary”.44 He also stressed the importance of never separating Jesus and Mary for to do so, he said, is “to divide Christ; it is to lose sight of the essential mission of His Sacred Humanity in the distribution of Divine grace"45 and along with this the grace of Mary’s spiritual motherhood.46

IV. Practical Aspects of his teaching for the spiritual life

In terms of application, Marmion derives various practical aspects from his spiritual doctrine: (1) from his reflection on baptism he draws a very helpful application on the Christian antithesis; (2) from his consideration on the Mysteries of Christ he teaches about the importance of meditative prayer and uniting oneself with the Church in her liturgy; from his teaching on the necessary mediation of Christ’s Sacred Humanity he exhorts the practice of devotion to (3) the Stations of the Cross as well as (4) Marian devotion and (5) the practice of fraternal charity.

As mentioned above, the fundamental axiom of Marmion’s doctrine is found in the teaching on our supernatural adoption into Christ having baptism (in fact or desire) as its efficacious sign. As a consequence, Marmion takes the historical reality expressed in baptism, namely, Christ’s death and rising, and used it as an initial programme for the spiritual life by teaching that the “whole of Christianity can be reduced to this mystery of death and life.”47 Furthermore, he uses this fundamental Christian antithesis as a means to expound on how to draw closer to God:

This basic antithesis is itself derived from a still more fundamental law of religion. All sanctity implies of necessity a double element: the one of separation, the other of union. It is of the very nature of things that one can only approach God by separating oneself from all created things.48

Succinctly put, he teaches that each of us is called to die to sin and all earthly attachments so as to become more united to God. Although this is a basic aspect of Christian and particularly Benedictine spirituality, it is interesting to see how central it remains to Marmion’s own spiritual doctrine. The following quotations help explain the reasons why he takes this dying to self with such seriousness not only in the beginning but throughout one’s spiritual journey:

We must carry on a vigorous struggle against all these unhealthy tendencies; otherwise we are building on sand. How many apostasies, even among religious and priests may be explained by the failure to fight generously against oneself. The crash comes suddenly, but pride, self-love and sensuality have long undermined the souls.49 It is therefore of primary importance to mortify ourselves. The true disciples of Christ, following the example of their master, ‘have crucified their flesh with its vices and concupiscences.’ The primary object of mortification, its direct, immediate object, is to guarantee us control over our evil instincts and to re-establish the equilibrium destroyed by sin.”50

Second, Marmion’s teaching emphasizes the unity that exists between us and Christ in His Mysteries through our supernatural adoption and the means of growing in this life of union with Him: first through meditative prayer and second, by uniting oneself with the Church in her liturgy, particularly through the Eucharist.The first practical aspect he suggests on this topic is a devout and regular reading of the Gospels for the purpose of drawing a deeper knowledge of Jesus and of His dispositions. In time this will help us better “penetrate the secrets of His sacred heart, to understand the magnificent Revelation of God to the world--the Revelation that is Jesus: “He who sees me sees also the Father.”51 In terms of union with the Church through her liturgy, Marmion strongly advocats participation in the Sacred Liturgy, especially through the Holy Eucharist, as one of the best means to grow in the imitation of Christ. As he puts it: “It is impossible to present God a more acceptable gift than that of offering ourselves with a right understanding of the mystery.”52 The Church is the best conduit for this union because she knows “the secrets of her Spouse” [...] through which she “educates, brings to maturity, the souls of her children so as to make them resemble Jesus and thus to perfect in them that copy of ‘image’ of Christ which is the very shape of our planned destiny.”53

Finally, from his teaching on the necessary mediation of Christ’s Sacred Humanity, three practical aspects follow: devotion to the Stations of the Cross, Marian devotion, and the practice of fraternal charity. Blessed Marmion had been taught about the importance of daily meditation on the Stations of the Cross, together with “a generous acceptance of crosses and humiliations and a fervent devotion to the sufferings of Christ,”54 from his spiritual director while he was still in seminary, and he remained faithful to this practice for the rest of his life. It was due to his experience of the efficacy of this prayer that he recommended it to others. Furthermore, as was his forte, he wrote a theologically rich and personally efficacious meditation on the Stations of the Cross in the fourteenth chapter of Christ in His Mysteries. He sees Our Lord’s Passion as the “Holy of holies” of His Mysteries and this practice as the most useful, after the Sacraments and liturgical acts, when done with sincerity and devotion.55

Another key practical aspect of Marmion spirituality is devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Marmion himself had a profound, life-long devotion to Our Lady. He used to sign the letters “E. de M.” (Enfant de Marie or Child of Mary) after his name up to his entrance into the monastery.56 Uniting theology and dogma, he understands Marian devotion as necessary because as he says: “No piety would be truly Christian if it did not include in its object the Mother of the Incarnate Word”57 who is also our spiritual Mother58 because as shown in the Gospel, “Jesus and Mary are inseparable in Christ’s mysteries”59 from His conception, throughout His earthly life, to the moment of His death. Besides being most pleasing to God, Marian devotion is necessary and most efficacious because Mary is intimately associated with all the Mysteries of our Redemption, who consequently has a power of intercession before God like no other. We should, therefore, honor her through the Church’s liturgy, meditate on the Mysteries of Christ with her through the Holy Rosary, and most of all, endeavor to live truly as a child of Mary that she may form Jesus in us.60

Finally, Marmion spirituality also contains persuasive and clear teaching on the practice of fraternal charity as an identifying mark of the follower of Christ. In it he defines charity as loving one’s neighbor “in view of God, for the purpose of obtaining for him, or of preserving within him, the grace of God that brings him to eternal beatitude.”61 He bases this teaching on Christ’s own new commandment which exhorted His followers to love one another as He loved us,62 revealed at a crucial moment in His life just before His Passion when He, as Marmion puts it, opened His Sacred Heart to His Apostles and called them “friends.” Jesus introduced a new commandment which He called His. Its new aspect was its universality, something not explicitly taught in the Old Testament.63 Jesus also made it “an infallible sign by which one will recognize His disciples: ‘By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another.”64 Our fraternal charity is in fact the basis on which we will be judged by Christ as He taught in the parable of the end times in Matthew 25: “Truly I say to you, as long as you did it to one of these my least brethren, you did it to me.” Marmion explains the foundation of this teaching on two principles: first, based on the fact that we are called to love God “entirely” (meaning with all our soul, mind, heart and strength) and “entire” (meaning God and all that He associates with Himself);65 and second, based on the unity that exists between Christ and His Mystical Body the Church. On the other hand, he also teaches that it is impossible for anyone to be perfect in the love of neighbor without also possessing a love for God “which at the same time embraces the full extent of the Divine will,”66 since our love for God is what permits and sustains a supernatural love of neighbor. Finally, Marmion discusses the qualities that charity ought to have in practice: it should be universal in its reach, that is, not excluding anyone since Christ died for all, but take varied forms according to our neighbor’s condition and needs.

Blessed Marmion’s spiritual doctrine is first of all the fruit of deep prayer and holy striving. It is also distinguished for its organic wholeness by the manner it unites dogma and theology as well as life. Its Trinitarian structure provides a truly systematic and effective spirituality, one that focuses on our identification with Christ through the grace of adoption, that sees this process of adoption as taking place through our incorporation into the Church under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, and that looks forward to the all-encompassing embrace of the Father to which all are called as sons and daughters of God and of Mary. Finally, as the fruit of his own holiness, Marmion’s doctrine remains deeply aware of human reality and is genuinely practical, recognizing in fraternal charity the identifying mark of a true follower of Christ.


1. Mark Tierney, “The Life and Times of Blessed Columba Marmion: The Pastoral Dimension,” Josephinum Journal of Theology 13, no. 2 (2006): 144.

2. Cf. Cardinal Justin Rigali, “Blessed Columba Marmion: Doctor of Divine Adoption,” Josephinum Journal of Theology 13, no. 2 (2006): 132.

3. The New Catholic Encyclopedia, “Benedictine Spirituality” (1967), 287.

4. Cf. Jordan Aumann, trans., Compendium of Spirituality (New York: Alba House, 1996), 85–6.

5. Cf. Aumann, Compendium, 83.

6. Louis Bouyer, The Spirituality of the New Testament and the Fathers (New York: Desclee Company, 1960), 517.

7. I. Ryelandt, St. Benedict the Man: The Moral Physiognomy of St. Benedict (St. Meinard, Indiana: Grail Publication, 1950), 14–5.

8. Ryelandt, St. Benedict the Man, 16–7.

9. As he put it in his own words: “I became a monk in order to obey. God has revealed to me the beauty and the grandeur of obedience.” M. M. (Marie Michel) Philipon, The Spiritual Doctrine of Dom Marmion, trans. Matthew Dillon (Westminster: Md., Newman Press, 1956), 33.

10. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 13.

11. Timothy Fry, ed., The Rule of St. Benedict in English (Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1982), 72:11.

12. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 14.

13. These two phrases were taken from an oral interview on May 5, 2016 with a Benedictine Monk, Fr. Pius X Harding, OSB, of Mt. Angel Abbey, St. Benedict, Oregon, who is known as a local expert in Marmion spirituality but has neither written nor published on this topic.

14. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 98.

15. Columba Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, trans. Alan Bancroft (Bethesda: Zaccheus Press, 2008), 24.

16. Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 25.

17. Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 26.

18. A sample of his extensive correspondence was published in English under the title Union with God: Letters of Spiritual Direction by Blessed Columba Marmion.

19. ”Heroic in his fidelity to obedience and submissive to the least suggestion of the Spirit of Jesus, Dom Columba rapidly ascended the heights of Christian perfection.” Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 47.

20. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 20.

21. Raymund Thibaut, Abbot Columba Marmion, Mary St. Thomas (London: Sands & Co., 1932), 359.

22. Cf. Mark Tierney, Blessed Columba Marmion: A Short Biography (Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press ; Dublin, Ireland: Columba Press, 2000), 146–9.

23. Tierney, Short Biography, 147–8.

24. Columba Marmion, Christ the Life of the Soul, Alan Bancroft (Bethsda: Zaccheus Press, 2005), 3.

25. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 36.

26. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 98.

27. John 1:3.

28. Rigali, “Doctor of Divine Adoption,” 134.

29. Rigali, “Doctor of Divine Adoption,” 134.

30. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 95.

31. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 15.

32. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 66.

33. John 8:29.

34. Marmion, Life of the Soul, 29.

35. Marmion, Life of the Soul, 31.

36. Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 44.

37. ”Such is the work of the divine giant: to bring back fallen humanity into the heart’s embrace of the Father, to the divine source of all bliss, by giving it back the grace of adoption through His life and His sacrifice.” Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 59–60.

38. Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 17.

39. Rigali, “Doctor of Divine Adoption,” 138.

40. Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 25.

41. Columba Marmion, Christ the Life of the Soul: Spiritual Conferences, Nun of Tyburn Convent (London: Sands & Co., 1922), 94.

42. Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 148.

43. Marmion, Life of the Soul: Conferences, 116.

44. Tierney, Short Biography, 145.

45. Rigali, “Doctor of Divine Adoption,” 139.

46. Marmion, Life of the Soul, 484.

47. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 99.

48. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 99.

49. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 101–2.

50. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 102.

51. Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 24.

52. Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 27.

53. Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 26.

54. Philipon, Spiritual Doctrine, 27.

55. Marmion, Christ in His Mysteries, 308.

56. Tierney, Short Biography, 145.

57. Marmion, Life of the Soul: Conferences, 340.

58. Marmion, Life of the Soul, 484.

59. Marmion, Life of the Soul: Conferences, 345.

60. Marmion, Life of the Soul, 481–91.

61. Marmion, Life of the Soul, 462.

62. John 15:12.

63. Marmion, Life of the Soul, 447.

64. John 13:35.

65. Marmion, Life of the Soul, 452.

66. Marmion, Life of the Soul, 450.


WORKS CITED

Aumann, Jordan, trans. Compendium of Spirituality. New York: Alba House, 1996.

Bouyer, Louis. The Spirituality of the New Testament and the Fathers. New York: Desclee Company, 1960.

Marmion, Columba. Christ in His Mysteries. Translated by Alan Bancroft. Bethesda: Zaccheus Press, 2008.

———. Christ the Life of the Soul: Spiritual Conferences. Nun of Tyburn Convent. London: Sands & Co., 1922.

———. Christ the Life of the Soul. Alan Bancroft. Bethsda: Zaccheus Press, 2005.

The New Catholic Encyclopedia. “Benedictine Spirituality,” 1967.

Philipon, M. M. (Marie Michel). The Spiritual Doctrine of Dom Marmion. Translated by Matthew Dillon. Westminster: Md., Newman Press, 1956.

Rigali, Cardinal Justin. “Blessed Columba Marmion: Doctor of Divine Adoption.” Josephinum Journal of Theology 13, no. 2 (2006): 132–42.

Ryelandt, I. St. Benedict the Man: The Moral Physiognomy of St. Benedict. St. Meinard, Indiana: Grail Publication, 1950.

Thibaut, Raymund. Abbot Columba Marmion. Mary St. Thomas. London: Sands & Co., 1932.

Tierney, Mark. Blessed Columba Marmion: A Short Biography. Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press ; Dublin, Ireland: Columba Press, 2000.

———. “The Life and Times of Blessed Columba Marmion: The Pastoral Dimension.” Josephinum Journal of Theology 13, no. 2 (2006): 143–48.

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